The division of borders of Upper Silesia between Poland and Germany were decided by a commission of the Paris Peace Conference. The German Reich was granted West Upper Silesia (which did not have economic value), and had to accept the fact that the coal-bearing territory was granted to Poland. The Silesian coal was highly relevant to the German economy during that time. The major part of Silesia remaining in Germany, was reorganized into the two provinces of Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia. The Polish Sejm decided that the eastern-most Upper Silesian areas would become an autonomous area within Poland, and categorized as the Silesian Voivodeship, possessing its own Silesian Parliament as a constituency and Silesian Voivodeship Council as the executive body. A central political figure was Wojciech Korfanty. The part of Silesia awarded to Poland was by far the best-developed and richest region of the newly formed state, producing most of Poland's industrial output. ( see May 2, 1921 )
Bishop Adam Stefan Sapieha, who had opposed the Pilsudski Sanacja regime, made the controversial decision to move Piłsudski's body, within Wawel's Cathedral, from St. Leonard's Crypt to the crypt under the Silver Bells. The event was met with public outcry and calls for the removal of Saphieha. During his regime, Marshal Piłsudski periodically changed his religious affiliation from that of Catholicism to Lutheranism and then back again. After the May coup, Piłsudski considered himself a Roman Catholic, but he did not appear to be religious and often used religion as public tool. Piłsudski was quoted saying: "Religion is for idiots". After the May Coup and during his reign as authoritarian leader Piłsudski's often clashed with Catholic leaders but did enjoy a good working relationship with Cardinal Aleksander Kakowski, who subsequently led his funeral mass. After the Germans invaded Poland, Sapieha was forced to operate the Polish seminary in secret because the Germans began executing seminarians whenever they found them. Sapieha moved his students (including the future Pope John Paul II, Karol Wojtyła) into the Bishop's Palace in Kraków to finish their training during the Nazi Occupation of Poland.
The Glinciszki massacre: Nazi units of the Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalion instigated a mass killing in the village of Glinciszki. 39 Polish villagers were murdered, which included 11 women (one who was in the final stage of pregnancy) and 11 children (some as young as 3 years old) and 6 elderly men. The Nazis inflicted collective punishment on the Poles in reprisal for the death of four Lithuanian policemen the night before at the hands of Polish resistance units of the 5th brigade of Armia Krajowa (Polish Home Army) under the command of Lieutenant Wiktor Wiącki. Two days later, Polish partisans retaliated against Lithuanian civilians in Dubingai.