February 11, 2018




The Yalta Conference concluded. The "Big Three", Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin signed a joint declaration affirming guidelines for the end of the war and maintaining international security. Among the terms agreed upon were the unconditional surrender of Germany, followed by its demilitarization, and denazification,  as well as reparations.  Regarding the status of Poland, they agreed that its eastern border would be based on the Curzon Line, that the legitimate authority in Poland would be the communist Provisional Government( installed by the Soviet Union "on a broader democratic basis."), and that free elections would be held, according to Stalins' promises.

German submarine U-869 was depth charged and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by U.S. destroyer escorts Howard D. Crow and Koiner.  It wasn't until September 2, 1991, that an unidentified U-boat wreck was discovered 73 meters (240 feet) deep off the coast of New Jersey.  The discoverers of the U-boat, John Chatterton, Richie Kohler, and Kevin Brennan, spent the next several years diving the wreck. Three divers, Steve Feldman, Chris Rouse and Chris Rouse, Jr., died while exploring during the expedition.  A few years later, they found part of the UZO torpedo aiming device, and spare parts from the motor room engraved with serial and other identifying numbers and on August 31, 1997 were able to conclude that the boat they found was U-869. The wreck lies just off the coast of New Jersey at the approximate coordinates of 39°32′56″N 73°19′56″W


Operation Deadlight was the code name for the Royal Navy operation to scuttle German U-boats surrendered to the Allies after the defeat of Germany near the end of World War II. Of the 156 U-boats that surrendered, 116 were scuttled as part of Operation Deadlight. The operation was carried out by the Royal Navy and it was planned to tow the submarines to three areas about 100 miles north-west of Ireland and sink them.  But by the time that the Operation got underway, many of the U-boats were in extremely deteriorated condition having been moored in exposed harbors while awaiting disposal. Consequently 56 of the boats sank before reaching the designated scuttling areas, and those which did, were generally sunk by gunfire rather than explosive charges.  The first sinking took place on  November 17, 1945 and the last on February 11, 1946.


As the result of a meeting of the Central Committee of the Polish Communist Party,  Polish Prime Minister Jozef Pinkowski was dismissed and replaced by General Wojciech Jaruzelski,  the Minister of Defense.  He was First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party from 1981 to 1989, making him the last leader of the People's Republic of Poland. He served as Prime Minister from 1981 to 1985 and the country's head of state from 1985 to 1990 and as President from 1989 to 1990. He was also the last commander-in-chief of the Polish People's Army (LWP). He resigned after the Polish Round Table Agreement with Solidarity in 1989, which led to democratic elections in Poland.

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