POLISH GREATNESS TRAFFIC

April 7, 2018

APRIL 7 - DAILY CHRONICLES OF HISTORY

APRIL 7

1884

Bronisław Kasper Malinowski (dob) was a Polish anthropologist, often considered one of the most important 20th-century anthropologists. Malinowski originated the school of social anthropology known as functionalism. In contrast to Radcliffe-Brown's structural functionalism, Malinowski argued that culture functioned to meet the needs of individuals rather than society as a whole. He reasoned that when the needs of individuals, who comprise society, are met, then the needs of society are met. According to Malinowski, the feelings of people and their motives were crucial factors in order to understand the way their society functions.


1933

The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service was passed in Nazi Germany. It restricted employment in the civil service to "Aryans". Consequently, Jews were not allowed to work as teachers, professors, judges, or any other government position. Soon after, Jewish doctors were forbidden to practice medicine. Also passed was The Law on the Admission to the Legal Profession forbidding the admission of Jews to the bar.


1937

Karol Szymanowski was buried at the Skalka Cemetery in Kraków.  Szymanowski was a famous Polish composer and pianist, the most celebrated Polish composer of the early 20th century. He was considered a member of the late 19th-/early 20th-century modernist movement Young Poland and widely viewed as one of the greatest Polish composers. Szymanowski's music received international recognition. In the 1920s and the 1930s, his music was immensely popular and was performed  by celebrated soloists such as Artur Rubinstein, Harry Neuhaus, Robert Casadesus, Paweł Kochański, Bronisław Huberman, Joseph Szigeti, and Jacques Thibaud and orchestras led by famous conductors including Emil Młynarski, Albert Coates, Pierre Monteux, Philippe Gaubert, Leopold Stokowski, Willem Mengelberg. European and American performances of his Stabat Mater were world-scale events. In 1994, a renowned director of the Montreal Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Charles Dutoit recorded both of his Violin Concertos.  Karol Szymanowski received many important awards, including: The Officer Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta; The Officer of the Order of the Crown of Italy; The Commander of the Order of the Crown of Italy; the Knight of Legion d'Honneur; an honorary plaque at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia; The Commander Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta; The Academic Golden Laurel of the Polish Academy of Literature, Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland. He was also a Doctor Honoris Causa of the Jagiellonian University, Kraków and an honorary member of the Czech Academy of Learning, the Latvian Conservatory of Music in Riga, the St Cecilia Royal Academy in Rome, the Royal Academy of Music in Belgrade, and the International Society for Contemporary Music.


1944

Two Jewish inmates escaped from Auschwitz-Birkenau, Alfred Wetzler, and Rudolf Vrba, making it safely to Czechoslovakia.  Rudolf Vrba later submitted a report to the Papal Nuncio in Slovakia which was forwarded to the Vatican, received there in mid June. The report contains a detailed description and sketches of the layout of the camps, gas chambers and their management;  how the prisoners lived and died;  the transports that had arrived at Auschwitz since 1942;  their place of origin,  the numbers "selected" for work or the gas chambers.  Only the prisoners would have known the details, such as the process of discharge forms filled out for prisoners who were to be gassed, indicating that the Nazi Germans falsified the death rates in the camp. In a sworn deposition for the trial of SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann in 1961, and in his book I Cannot Forgive (1964), Vrba said that he and Wetzler obtained the information about the gas chambers and crematoria from Sonderkommando Filip Müller and his colleagues who worked there. Müller confirmed this in his Eyewitness Auschwitz (1979). Auschwitz scholar Robert Jan van Pelt wrote in 2002 that the description contains errors, but that given the circumstances, including the men's lack of architectural training, "one would become suspicious if it did not contain errors"


1945

German submarine U-1195 was depth charged and sunk southeast of the Isle of Wight by the Royal Navy destroyer HMS destroyer Watchman.  (D26), using a Hedgehog antisubmarine mortar, to the southeast of the Isle of Wight at 50°33′22.26″N 0°56′17.81″W (WGS84) in 30 metres (98 feet) of water. Fifty crew members were alive when she sank; however, only 14 survived.


1989

April Novelization (Polish: Nowela kwietniowa) referred to the constitutional amendments made to the 1952 Constitution of the People's Republic of Poland, agreed upon on April 7, 1989, in the aftermath of the Polish Round Table Agreement.  Key changes were the restoration of the Senate of Poland and the post of the president of Poland (the latter annulling the power of the Polish United Workers' Party general secretary); introduction of the National Court Council; changes to the electoral legislation, in order to make elections more free and fair; powers of the Sejm were adjusted. The 1952 constitution was reformed by the December Novelization and Small Constitution of 1992, and finally replaced in 1997 by a completely new current Constitution of Poland.




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