April 1, 2018




Hugo Kołłątaj (dob) was a Polish Roman Catholic priest, social and political activist, political thinker, historian and philosopher. He is seen as one of the most prominent figures of the Enlightenment in Poland.  He advocated a pro-republican constitutional reform and the need for social reforms. Among the goals he pursued were the strengthening of the king's position, larger national army, abolishing the liberum veto, introduction of universal taxation, and emancipation of both the townspeople and the peasantry. He also co-authored the Constitution of 3 May 1791. During his exile following the Polish Russian War of 1792, his political views radicalized and he became involved with plans for an insurrection.  In 1794 he took part in the Kościuszko Uprising, co-authoring its Uprising Act of March 24, 1794) and Połaniec Manifesto (May 7,1794), and was the head of the Supreme National Council's Treasury Department, providing support for the Uprising's left wing of Polish Jacobins.


Hitler declared a nation-wide boycott of Jewish businesses and professionals, in response to the Jewish boycott of German products.  Opponents from the United States, Great Britain, and other countries rallied together to launch a boycott of German products, in protest against Nazi Germany and its virulent anti-semitism. Hitler responded by calling a boycott of all Jewish businesses.  Nazi SA troops stood outside in front of Jewish-owned businesses and offices of professionals such as doctors and lawyers, and vandalized thousands of doors and windows with painted Star of David and anti-semitic slurs. Many individual Germans ignored the intimidation tactics, and chose to shop in Jewish stores anyway. This was just the beginning of what would lead to the "Final Solution".   The Nazi Party managed a campaign of harassment, arrests, systematic pillaging, and forced transfer of ownership to the Nazi Party. In Berlin alone, there were 50,000 Jewish-owned businesses that were confiscated by the Nazis.


Deputy Polish Premier Mieczyslaw Jagielski flew to Washington, D.C. to meet with US Secretary of State Alexander Haig, and  Vice-President George H.W. Bush, regarding Poland's request for emergency food and financial aid.  They promised Jagielski that the US would sell Poland 50,000 tons of surplus butter and dried milk and would consider cooperating on rescheduling Poland's $3 billion debt to the US. He left Paris after two days of talks with President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing,  in which France pledged Poland $800 million in credits for 1981 plus an emergency shipment of 400,000 tons of wheat. In Brussels, the European Community Executive Commission proposed today to supply $216 million worth of food to Poland at prices averaging 15 percent below world market prices.

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