April 30, 2012

KATYN MASSACRE: RUSSIAN WEB OF CONSPIRACY





Katyn - "Masskilling is masskilling" (00:06:40m)


On April 16, 2012 the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) announced its judgement in the Case of Janowiec And Others vs the Russian government.  Two applications had been filed, in 2007 and 2009, by fifteen Polish nationals, later joined by the Polish government. They raised grievances against the Russian government for its refusal to allow access to its files containing information about the victims of the Katyn Massacre.

In 1940 the Soviet NKVD under Stalins' orders executed more than 16,000 Polish Officers in the forests near Smolensk, Russia. Three years later the Germans discovered the mass graves and denounced the Soviets as the perpetrators.  The Soviets adamantly denied it, and enjoyed the protection of its allies Great Britain and the United States, whose tacit support ensured that the controversy would remain obscure for decades. 

Exhumed bodies of Polish Officers massacred at Katyn 1940
Exhumed bodies of Polish Officers massacred at Katyn 1940




Mikhail Gorbachev-USSR
Mikhail Gorbachev
 
In April 1990 President Mikhail Gorbachev gave State secret documents to the Polish President, which contained information that proved irrefutably that the Katyn Massacre was carried out by the Soviet secret police, and not the Germans. The USSR publicly expressed "profound regret". Gorbachev stated, "It is not easy to speak of this tragedy, but it is necessary."  His gesture, and the admission of Soviet guilt, was unprecedented in the history of Russian-Polish relations.  But despite these revelations, and the subsequent release of more secret Soviet documents about Katyn, the spectre of Russian conspiracy prevailed.



In September 2004 the Russian government promised that information relating to the Katyn Massacre would be submitted to Polish officials as soon as the documents became "declassified".  Surprisingly, in March 2005, the Prosecutor-General's Office declared that the investigation was officially discontinued, that the reasons for so doing was itself a State secret, and that such documents were inaccessible to foreign nationals. The Russian authorities refused to even provide a copy of their decision to discontinue proceedings.  In the meantime out of a total of 183 volumes of files which had been accumulated by the Russian investigative team, there remained 116 volumes still classified as top secret. (NB. On April 7, 2011 the Soviets handed Poland eleven more volumes of declassified documents related to Katyn.)

Soviet declassified documents regarding the Katyn Massacre April 7, 2011


Alexander Savenkov Chief Military Prosecutor Russia
Alexander Savenkov
In March 2005 the Polish Sejm (Parliament) unanimously passed an Act requesting full disclosure from the Russian government regarding documents about the Katyn Massacre, and their acknowledgment of the fact that it was genocide.  Poland emphasized that the refusal by Russia to provide access to the records of the investigation, made it "difficult to determine the whole truth about the murder and its perpetrators."   However, the Chief Military Prosecutor for the Russian Federation, Alexander Savenkov attested that the Katyn Massacre was not an act of genocide, and that there was " absolutely no basis to talk about this in judicial terms" since the perpetrators of the crime had already been found guilty and were dead.



It was therefore not surprising that the Russian government refused to cooperate during the ECHR proceedings. The Court charged the Russian government with a breach of Article 38 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, which stipulates that all parties to a case must submit "all necessary facilities"  to the Court upon request.  The Russian government did not.

The court proceedings were fraught with an endless array of Russian-style tactics of evasion and lies, rebuttals, and stonewalling. For example in 2003, Mr. Szewczyk, the lawyer representing  Mr. Janowiec, applied to the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation, with a request for access to documents related to Mr. Janowiec, and two other persons. The Russian office denied access to such information on the grounds that "documents could only be given to the officially recognized victims or their representatives." Despite repeated attempts, the applicants' lawyers were unable to obtain such recognition for their clients.

The Russian propensity to wield contradictions and ambiguity was particularly frustrating to the Court and painful for the Applicants to bear.  Note that in April 2007 the Military Court of the Moscow Command concluded that there were no legal grounds to assume that Mr. Janowiec and others were victims of the massacre.  According to Russian authorities their names were listed among the prisoners at Starobelsk camp, but their remains had not been identified during the investigation.  And since their bodies had not been identified, there was "no proof that the applicants' relatives had lost their lives as a result of the crime of abuse of power (Article 193.17 of the 1926 Soviet Criminal Code.) In essense, the Russian defense claimed that the whereabouts of the victims were unknown, as though they had "vanished." However, on June 23, 2003, the Prosecutor General's Office declared that an investigation completed in 1991, in which 200 bodies were exhumed from the Smolensk area, resulted in the identification of "some of them including Mr. Nawratil and Mr. Janowiec".  In 1943, of a total of 4,243 bodies exhumed near Katyn, 2,730 were identified. Among them were the bodies of relatives of the claimants in the proceedings.

Vladimir Putin Russia
Vladimir Putin
The ECHR also charged the Russian Government with a violation under Article 3 of the Convention. The applicants had suffered an ordeal that lasted for decades in their pursuit for information about their relatives.  Throughout the process they endured "official denial and indifference in the face of their acute anxiety to know the circumstances of the death of their close family members and their burial sites."  The Russian authorities were unresponsive, and provided information that was either contradictory or ambiguous, and that such information was acknowledged at the highest political level.  No effort was ever made on their part to clarify the circumstances surrounding the death of their relatives, nor locate their burial sites.

The ECHR asserted that a denial of crimes against humanity is counter to the fundamental values of the Convention, and of democracy.  The Russian response runs contrary to these fundamental values, and  "demonstrated a callous disregard for the applicants' concern and deliberate obfuscation of the circumstances of the Katyn Massacre."

Russian unwillingness to cooperate with the ECHR and their refusal to make full disclosure about Katyn,  have not contributed one iota to improving Russian-Polish relations.  It has accomplished the reverse. It has elicited a heightened degree of suspicion, distrust, and hostility towards the Russian government, feelings which are unlikely to recede unless the Russian government, and in particular, President Putin, shore up the courage to speak the Truth, the Whole Truth, and nothing but the Truth.  


MEMORIAL TO VICTIMS OF KATYN MASSACRE, SMOLENSK RUSSIA
MEMORIAL TO VICTIMS OF KATYN MASSACRE, SMOLENSK RUSSIA





Please Note:
The complete transcript of the Judgement of the ECHR, dated April 16, 2012,  is available on line.  Please click here.


April 25, 2012

WW2 MILITARY UNIFORMS OF THE POLISH ARMED FORCES


POLISH UNIFORMS



WW2 uniform of Polish Infantry - Private (1939)

POLISH INFANTRY WW2 marching in formation
POLISH INFANTRY WW2

Polish Infantry - Private (1939)

01  wz. 1939 "rogatywka" garrison cap
02  wz. 1937 "rogatywka" field cap
03  wz. 1937  steel helmet
04  wz. 1936  jacket
05  dog tag
06  WST wz. 1932 gas mask in a tarpaulin bag
07  personal dressing
08  leather ammo pouches
09  wz. 1933 breadbag
10  leather main belt
11  wz. 1938 canteen
12  wz. 1928 bayonet cover
13  folding shovel in a leather cover
14  wz. 1933 backpack with blanket
15  standard army biscuit
16  wz. 1931 mess kit
Polish troops (just before WW2) note French gas mask canisters
Polish troops (just before WW2) note French gas mask canisters
17  spoon + fork kit
18  owijacze - belts of cloth used instead of socks
19  boots
20  GR-31 grenade - frag
21  GR-31 grenade - concussion
22  7,92 mm Mauser 1898a rifle
23  7,92 mm ammo clips
24  wz.1924 bayonet
25  wire cutting shears





Polish Infantry 1939 September Campaign
Polish Infantry 1939

Polish mountain infantry -  Parade of Podhale Rifles circa 1936
Polish mountain infantry -  Parade of Podhale Rifles circa 1936

Militlary Uniforms  - Polish Soldiers - Ceremonial Parade of Podhale Rifles Regiment
Polish Soldiers of Podhale Rifles Regiment


 Military Uniforms - Polish Soldiers - Parade of Podhale Rifles Regiment
Polish Soldiers of the Podhale Rifles Regiment -background High Tatras Mountains
(notice the icepick?)

Edelweiss cloth insignia on field uniforms of Polish Podhale Rifles
Cloth insignia on field uniforms of Polish Podhale Rifles


Es steht ein kleines, kleines Edelweiß
auf einer steilen, steilen Felsenhöh! 

There is a small, small edelweiss
on a steep, steep rocky heights!

Not a Nazi Swastika - it is Highlander Cross badge worn on the collars of the Podhale Rifles Regiment until 1945
Highlander Cross badge worn on the collars of the Podhale Rifles Regiment until 1945



The traditional symbols of the Podhale Rifles regiment are the edelweiss and the Mountain Cross, the latter which has been part of the folk culture of the Polish mountain regions. It has no relation whatsoever to the Nazi swastikas of the NSDAP.  In fact the Mountain Cross pre-dates the rise of the Nazi party.


Franciszek Kosibor in his uniform of Podhale Rifles-1939 Defensive War Poland WW2
Franciszek Kosibor in his uniform of Podhale Rifles-1939 Defensive War




WW 2 Military Uniform of Polish Uhlan 1939


Polish Uhlan (1939)

01  wz. 1937 "rogatywka" field cap
02  wz. 1932  forage cap
Military Uniform of Polish Uhlan WW2
Polish Uhlan
03  "Adrian" French steel helmet
04  wz. 1936 jacket
05  wz. 1931 canteen
06  dog tag
07  leather ammo pouches for Mauser ammo
08  main belt
09  RSC gas mask with canister
10  wz. 1924 bayonet cover
11  folding shovel in a leather cover
12  boots with spurs
13  wz. 1931 mess kit
14  personal dressing
15  wz. 1934 cavalry sabre
16  7,92mm Mauser 1898a rifle
17  wz. 1924 bayonet
18  7,92 mm ammo clips
19  fork + spoon kit




WW2 Military Uniform - Polish Rogatywka - Insignia of Colonel
(Photo: Rogatywka with Polish coat of arms and pulkownik is the rank insignia of a Colonel.)


"Rogatywka" is the Polish name for an asymmetrical, peaked,four-pointed military cap. "Rog" is a derivative of the word and means "horn". No other army in the world has such a cap. There are two types of caps, the hardened version, indicated by "Mk.1935, is olive green with black peak and is worn in full gala uniforms; its rim color marks the unit type. The soft version was worn before WWII and during the period of the PRL, but was withdrawn after 1990. Unlike most military forces, Polish soldiers do not decorate their caps with military insignia, but rather with the Polish White Eagle, which is the Polish Coat of Arms. Rim colors have specific meanings as follows;


Navy blue – generals, mechanized troops, law corps and National Honour Guard
Orange – units dedicated to honor historical panzer troops, scouts
Dark green – rocket forces, artillery, anti-aircraft units
Black – engineering units, cadets
Cornflower – HQs, radio services
Cherry – medics
Scarlet – Military Police
Violet – chaplains
Yellow – headquarters, 1st Warsaw Mechanized Division, 1st Warsaw Armoured Division


    WW2 Military Uniform Czapka of a wachtmeister of 1st Uhlan Regiment of Polish Legion
    Czapka of a wachtmeister of 1st Uhlan Regiment of Polish Legion

    CZAPKA is the Polish word for a cap.  It was the headgear of 19th century Polish cavalry and was quite high and consisted of a four-pointed cap emblazoned with the regimental insignia on the front.  Sometimes feathers or rosettes were added.


    painting of 19th century Polish Uhlan on horse
    painting of 19th century Uhlan

    WW2 military uniforms - group of Polish Uhlans
    Polish Uhlans

    Polish Uhlans in riding formation 1939 Poland
    Polish Uhlans in riding formation 1939 Poland



    WW2 military uniform - Polish Cavalry Officer 1939


    Polish Cavalry Officer (1939)

    01  wz.1935 "rogatywka" garrison cap
    Polish Cavalry Officer - Lt. Col Wladyslaw Anders - before 1939
    Polish Cavalry Officer - Lt. Col Władysław Anders before 1939
    02  wz.1923 forage cap
    03  round cap of the 3rd Cavalry Regiment
    04  wz.1937 "rogatywka" field cap
    05  wz.1936 officers' garrison jacket,
    insignia of the 6th Uhlan Regiment on collar tabs
    06  memorial badge of the 21st Uhlan Regiment
    07  dog tag
    08  wz.1936 officers' field jacket
    09  9mm wz.1935 "Vis" pistol
    10  personal dressing
    11   wz.1936 officers' main belt
    12  leather holster for the wz.1935 pistol
    13  officers' boots with spurs
    14  officers' field bag, B-type
    15  binoculars
    16  strap for wz.1935 pistol
    17  wz.1921/22 officers' sabre


    Video of Mazowiecka Cavalry Brigade - Kawaleria Ułany Szwoleżery Strzelcy  (00:02:15m)






    Panoramic photographb of Polish Cavalry in full charge ( before WW2)
    Polish Cavalry - maneuvers before outbreak of WW2




    WW2 Military Uniform - Private, 1st Grenadier Division, Polish Army in France (1940)










    Private, 1st Grenadier Division, Polish Army in France (1940)


    Officers of Polish Army at Camp Coetquidan, France1940
    Polish soldiers Camp Coetquidan, France1940
    01  Model 1919 beret
    02  Model 1918 French forage cap
    03  French Model 1915 "Adrian" helmet
    04  Polish "rogatywka" cap
    05  ammo clip
    06  ammo pack
    07  leather webbing
    08  Model 1916 ammo pouches
    09  Model 03/14 main belt
    10  8 mm Berthier 1892 carbine
    11  Model 1938 privates' jacket
    12  Model 1922 trousers
    13  Model 1935 gas mask with leather bag
    14  calendar
    15  Model 1893 backpack
    16  blanket
    17  Model 1935 mess kit
    18  Model 1935 cup
    19  canteen
    20  Model 1917 boots
    Polish Army in France recruitment poster-Armia Polska w Francja centrum rekrutacyjne 1940


    Hieronim Dekutowski in Polish Army, France 1940
    Hieronim Dekutowski in Polish Army, France 1940

    Hieronim Dekutowski- Polish Army WW2
    Hieronim Dekutowski- Polish Army WW2

    Hieronim Dekutowski (noms de guerre "Zapora", "Odra", "Rezu", "Stary", "Henryk Zagon") was an Officer of the Polish Armed forces fighting in the Western front, and was a legendary Cichociemni and guerilla commander of the Armia Krajowa (Home Army). After the so-called "Soviet liberation" of Poland, Dekutowski went into hiding from the Soviet NKVD and Urząd Bezpieczeństwa (UB). On February 5, 1945, Abram Tauber, the Jewish commander of the UB in Chodel invited four members of the Polish underground to his headquarters.  Tauber had previously been rescued from the Nazis by Polish AK units, and often sought refuge at the "Zapora" compound.   But when the Polish men arrived at the station Tauber ordered them to be tied up and single-handedly shot them one after another.   In retaliation, Dekutowski attacked and destroyed the UB station in Chodel. The incident sparked an anti-Soviet uprising in the region.




    WW2 Military Uniform -Private, Polish Army in the USSR (1941)

    General Sikorski inspects Polish troops Buzuluk, Russia Dec 1941
    General Sikorski inspects Polish troops Buzuluk, Russia Dec 1941


    Private, Polish Army in the USSR (1941)

    01  wz.1937 "rogatywka" field cap
    02  Model 1937 overcoat
    03  main belt
    04  Model 1904 ammo pouches
    05  felt boots
    06  tarpaulin gloves
    07  7,62 mm Tokarev SVT-40 rifle






    Polish Army in USSR 1941-42
    Polish Army in USSR 1941-42


    Polish Army parade at Buzułuku - USSR December 1941
    Polish Army parade at Buzułuku - USSR December 1941

    Military exercise in Polish camp at Tockoje- Russia 1941-1942
    Military exercise in Polish camp at Tockoje- Russia 1941-1942

    General Anders and General Sikorski at reviewing stand inspecting Polish troops in USSR 1941
    General Anders and General Sikorski at reviewing stand inspecting Polish troops in USSR 1941


    WW2 Military Uniform -Major, Polish Air Force in the UK (1940-45)


    Famous Polish Ace Pilot F/0 Miroslaw Feric
    F/0 Miroslaw Feric -Ace Pilot
    Major, Polish Air Force in the UK (1940-45)

    01  RAF officer's cap with Polish wz.1936 air force eagle
    02  RAF officer's jacket, Polish major insignia on the collar
    tabs, British Flight Lieutenant insignia on the sleeves.
    03  Officers' trousers
    04  Shoes
    05  Briefcase
    06  Silver Cross of the Virtuti Militari Cross
    07  Infantry Officer's School Badge
    08  Observer badge
    09  British Navigator's wings 

    Polish Ace Pilots - Jan Zumbach on the left - Spitfire plane
    Polish Ace Pilots - Jan Zumbach on the left















    Polish Pilots - France 1940
    Polish Pilots - France 1940

    WW2 - Polish Pilots - Division 315 ‘Dębliński’ - Aug 14, 1942 Divisional Day (UK)
    Division 315 ‘Dębliński’ - Aug 14, 1942 Divisional Day (UK)
    Polish 301 Bombing Division - inspected by King George VI and General Sikorski
    Polish 301 Bombing Division


    Photo:  (Aug 20, 1940) Bramcote, UK. Officers inspecting Polish bombing squadrons in formation.
    First row L-R; Lieutenant Colonel Roman Rudkowski-the first commanding officer of the Division 301, General Władysław Sikorski, King George VI, and Captain A. Davidson, Station Leader.






    Polish Pilots in France 1940 (00:00:50sec)


    General Sikorski awards Silver Cross of Virtuti Militari to ace Polish pilot Jan Zumbach Dec. 23, 1940
    General Sikorski awards Silver Cross of Virtuti Militari to ace pilot Jan Zumbach Dec. 23, 1940

    WW2 Polish Pilots (background is famous the PZL 37 Los Polish bomber )
    Polish Pilots (background is famous the PZL 37 Los Polish bomber )


    WW2 Polish Ace Pilots - Kosciuszko Squadron-Battle of Britain 1940
    Polish Ace Pilots - Kosciuszko Squadron-Battle of Britain 1940

    WW2 Military uniform GENERAL WLADYSLAW SIKORSKI
    GENERAL WLADYSLAW SIKORSKI



    WW2 Poland - Polish Soldiers Battalion Chlopskie
    Polish Soldiers Battalion Chlopskie




    Partisan of the Peasant Battalions (Bataliony Chlopskie) Poland 1942

    01  wz.1937 "rogatywka" cap
    02  jacket
    03  trousers
    04  boots
    05  improvised armband
    06  9 mm MP-40 SMG



    Bataliony Chlopskie was a resistance movement and partisan organisation created in the mid 1940s by
    the Stronnictwo Ludowe, (Polish People's Party), an agrarian political party.  By 1944 it was partially integrated with the Armia Krajowa (Home Army). At its peak it had 175,000 members. Their first major action was during the Zamosc Uprising in 1942 when the Germans expelled the Poles, expropriated their farmland and and gave it to German settlers. After several major battles, the Germans stopped the expulsions.


    WW2 Poland - Battalion Chlopskie "Odwet"
    Battalion Chlopskie "Odwet"
    WW2  Commander of Battalion Chlopskie Franciszek Kaminski
    Commander of Battalion Chlopskie Franciszek Kaminski



    WW2 Military uniform - Major, 1st Polish Armoured Division (UK) 1942-43


    Major, 1st Polish Armoured Division (UK) 1942-43

    WW2  1st Polish Armoured Div - Regimental Day
    1st Polish Armoured Div - Regimental Day
    01  British forage cap with a Polish wz.1940 military eagle and major's insignia
    02  British officer's jacket
    03  British trousers
    04  Officer's belt
    05  Shirt and Tie
    06  Officers' boots
    07  Black shoulder strap of 1st Armoured Div
    08  1st Armoured Division Badge
    09  Banners of 1st Independent HMG Batallion
    10  1st HMG Batallion's honorary cord

    Photo:   Haddington 29.04.1943 The colour of the 10th Dragoons during the celebrations of the regimental day of the 10th Mounted Rifles.



    WW2 July 1944 England - 1st Polish AD in training
    July 1944 England 1st Polish AD in training

    WW2 (L) General Stanislaw Maczek communicating on radio
    (L) General Stanislaw Maczek

    WW2 Military uniform General Stanislaw Maczek
    General Stanislaw Maczek



    WW2 Military uniform uniform - 2nd Lt, 1st Infantry Division, Polish People's Army (USSR) 1943


    2nd Lt, 1st Infantry Division, Polish People's Army (USSR) 1943

    WW2 Poland - 1st Polish (Peoples) Army Parade January 19, 1944
    1st Polish (Peoples) Army Parade January 19, 1944
    01  wz. 1937 field "rogatywka" cap
    02  Model 1936 drill jacket, wz.1943 military
    eagle on the buttons
    03  Soviet breeches
    04  Model 1935 officer's belt
    05  synthetic leather holster for Nagant revolver
    06  synthetic leather map pouch
    07  leather boots
    08  Adrianoy compass
    09  binoculars
    10  7,62 mm PPSh-41 SMG
    11  decorations: Cross of the Valorous,
    "Zasluzonym na Polu Chwaly" medal




    WW2 Polish soldiers of the  Polish People's Army  - Polish White Eagle on tank
    Polish People's Army
    Polish soldiers of the 24th Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment.
     (Vehicle may be an SU-85) Polish eagle moderated.

    Polish soldiers of the  Soviet-backed 1st Tadeusz Kościuszko Infantry Division-July 28-30 1943
    Polish soldiers of the  1st Tadeusz Kościuszko Infantry Division-Soviet backed July 28-30 1943

    Polish soldiers of the Soviet backed 1st Polish Army Jan 1945 so-called liberation of Warsaw
    Polish soldiers of the Soviet backed 1st Polish Army Jan 1945 so-called liberation of Warsaw

    Polish soldiers in Berlin May 1945
    Polish soldiers in Berlin May 1945



    WW2 Military uniform - solider of Warsaw Uprising - Poland 1944
    partisan military uniform Zoska Battalion Warsaw Uprising 1944 Poland WW2
    Zoska Battalion Warsaw Uprising

    Soldier of the Warsaw Uprising 1944

    01  German "Gladiator" helmet
    02  Wehrmacht sweatshirt in "Sumpftarnmuster" camp
    03  Polish wz.1933 main belt
    04  Polish breeches
    05 German pre-1939 boots
    06  Ak (Home Army) armband
    07  9 mm Sten Mk II SMG
    08 German ammo pouches for MP-38/40 mags


    Photo of Zoska Battalion: Left to Right: Polish resistance fighters Wojciech Omyla, Juliusz Bogdan Deczkowski, and Tadeusz Milewski in captured German uniforms and Kar98k rifles, Warsaw, Poland, 5 Aug 1944.

    WW2 Poland - Warsaw Uprising - Little Boy - Polish Scout
    Polish scout Warsaw Uprising




    Polish Scouts Armia Krajowa Warsaw Uprising 1944
    Polish Scouts Armia Krajowa Warsaw Uprising 1944


    Polish Insurgents column - Warsaw Uprising 1944
    Polish Insurgents column - Warsaw Uprising 1944

    Armia Krajowa - Polish Home Army - Warsaw Uprising 1944
    Home Army - Warsaw Uprising




    WW2 Military Uniform - Lieutenant, 1st Polish Airborne Brigade, Battle of Arnhem 1944


    Lieutenant, 1st Polish Airborne Brigade, Arnhem 1944

    WW2 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade # 5 - Cichociemni

    1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade # 5

     


    01  British beret with Polish eagle and rank insignia
    02  "Denison smock" Mk I Jacket
    03  "Oversmock" vest
    04  Officers' boots
    05  trousers from M37 Battle dress
    06  British map pouch
    07  captured German ammo pouch
    used as a cover for a flashlight
    08  webbing, belt and holster for
    Enfield No2 revolver
    09  9mm Sten Mk II SMG
    10  AT Mk II airborne helmet

    WW2 Standard 1st Polish Parachute Brigade
    Standard 1st Polish Parachute Brigade
















    WW2 Polish Uniforms Polish paratroopers 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade

    Polish paratroopers during field exercises Scotland, Kingcraig circa 1943. These men were elite special operations troops who were called "Cichociemni" the dark and silent ones. Of 2,413 candidates, only 605 men were able to complete the training successfully, but 579 qualified for air missions.

    WW2 Cichociemni  in training (elite special operations Polish paratroopers)
    Cichociemni  in training (elite special operations Polish paratroopers)

    Paratroopers of the 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade - Market Garden
    Paratroopers of the 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade - Market Garden

    Allied Paratroopers and 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade - Market Garden
    Allied Paratroopers and 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade - Market Garden

    Field Marshall Montgomery inspect 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade
    Field Marshall Montgomery inspect 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade

    General Stanislaw Sosabowski  at Driel  (Battle of Arnhem)
    General Stanislaw Sosabowski  at Driel  (Battle of Arnhem)

    General Stanislaw Sosabowski  Commander of the 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade

    General Stanislaw Sosabowski
    Commander of the 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade



    WW2 Military Uniform - Private, 1st Polish Army, Kolberg March 1945


    Private, 1st Polish Army, Kolberg March 1945

    01  wz.1937 field "rogatywka" cap
    02  Soviet M 1940 helmet with Polish wz.1943 military eagle
    03  Model 1937 overcoat
    Destruction of Kolberg 1945
    Kolberg 1945
    04  Model 1936 tarpaulin jacket, infantry banners on the collar tabs
    05  M 1935 drill trousers
    06  owijacze (leggings)
    07  Soviet main belt
    08  boots
    09  German M-09 ammo pouches
    10  pot
    11  self-made spoon
    12  7,62 Mosin 1891/30 rifle with bayonet
    13  F-1 grenade
    14  RPG-1 anti-tank grenade
    15  oiler for the Mosin rifle
    16  Maxim HMG ammo belt container
    17  canteen 


    Polish soldiers - Kolberg 1945
    Polish soldiers - Kolberg 1945






    Military Uniform - Major, maintenance units of the 1st Polish Armoured Division (Germany 1945)


    Major, maintenance units of the 1st Polish Armoured Division (Germany 1945)

    01  M 37/40 battle dress, maintenance units banners on the collar tabs
    WW2 1st Polish Armoured Division 10th Mounted Rifles Regiment at Haddington 29.4.1943. Regimental Day
    1st Polish Armoured Division
    02  black shoulder strap of 1st Armoured Div
    03  1st Arm Div badge
    04  Silver Cross of the Virtuti Militari Cross
    05  M 37 webbing
    06  11,43 mm Colt M1911 pistol
    07  Officers' boots
    08  leather vest
    09  drivers' gloves
    10  armoured units' training helmet
    11  AT Mk II motorcycle helmet
    12  Mk II helmet
    13 leggings

    Photo at right: the 10th Mounted Rifles Regiment at Haddington 29.4.1943. Regimental Day




    1st Polish Armoured Division Aug 1944 (Sherman Tank)
    1st Polish Armoured Division Aug 1944 (Sherman Tank)

    1st Polish Armoured Division 1944 (Normandy)
    1st Polish Armoured Division 1944 (Normandy)
    WW2 1st Polish Armoured Division
    1st Polish Armoured Division



    Polish Navy

    Presentation of new Polish Naval Officers to President on Oct 15, 1936 Warsaw Castle
    Presentation of new Polish Naval Officers to President on Oct 15, 1936 Warsaw Castle

    Polish sailors in UK 1943
    Polish sailors in UK 1943


    Illustration of Polish sailor's uniform WW2
    Illustration of Polish sailor's uniform WW2

    King George VI reviews Polish naval regiment (UK)

    Polish Naval Commander RearAdmiral Jozef Unrug (1930 ranked Captain)
    Polish Naval Commander RearAdmiral Jozef Unrug (1930 ranked Captain)

    Jozef Unrug Polish Vice Admiral
    Jozef Unrug Polish Vice Admiral

    WW2 Military Uniform - 2nd Lt., AAA of the 2nd Polish Corps (Italy 1945)


    WW2 Polish Soldiers -  2nd Polish Corps and Mascot - Wojtek the cub bear
    2nd Polish Corps with Wojtek the cub bear
    2nd Lt., AAA of the 2nd Polish Corps (Italy 1945)

    01  M40 battle dress, AAA colors of the collar tabs
    02  American woollen shirt
    03  M40 overcoat
    04  M42 beret
    05  boots
    06  M37 breadbag
    07  dog tags
    08  ribbons of the Monte Cassino Cross
    09  2nd Polish Corps Artillery memorial badge
    10  Polish-English pocket dictionary
    11  Propaganda leaflet

    WW2 emblem of 22nd Artillery Supply company of 2nd Polish Corps - Wojtek the Bear
    Official Emblem Wojtek

    Wojtek was more than a mascot. He grew up to become an official soldier of the 2nd Polish Corp - the 22nd Artillery Supply Company.  He carried heavy loads of ammo for his unit.





    Polish Soldiers 2nd Polish Corps Monte Cassino, Italy 1944
    Polish Soldiers 2nd Polish Corps Monte Cassino, Italy 1944

    An Illustration of soldiers of 2nd Polish Corps Monte Cassino Italy 1944
    An Illustration of soldiers of 2nd Polish Corps Monte Cassino Italy

    Soldiers of 2nd Polish Corps charging up Phantom Hill - Monte Cassino 1944
    Soldiers of 2nd Polish Corps charging up Phantom Hill - Monte Cassino

    General Anders salutes soldiers of 2nd Polish Corps
    General Anders salutes soldiers of 2nd Polish Corps

    General Wladsylaw Anders - Commander of 2nd Polish Corps
    General Wladsylaw Anders - Commander of 2nd Polish Corps


    Polish White Eagle