|Molotov signing the Pact|
These were the non-secret conditions but it also contained a secret protocol which established "spheres of influence". That is, the Soviet Union was "assigned" Finland, Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia, and areas east of the Pisa, Narev, Vistula and San Rivers; while Germany would occupy the West. Eleven days after the joint invasion of Poland, the secret protocol of the Pact was modified to give Germany a larger portion of Poland, and most of Lithuania allotted to the Soviet Union.
|Molotov Ribbentrop Pact|
The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact made headline news the following day in the Soviet newspapers Pravda and Izvestia, publishing the famous photo of Molotov signing the Pact, while Stalin stood behind him smiling. International reaction by governments and media was one of surprise and utter shock. In the preceding months, Britain, France and the Soviet Union had been conducting negotiations of their own with the objective of establishing a "Tripartite Alliance". With the sudden turn of events, Time Magazine coined the phrase "Communazi Pact" to describe the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and referred to its signatories and collaborators as "Communazis".
Just six months later, Germany and the Soviet Union entered into a trade negotiations that was substantially larger than the original agreement signed in August 1939; according to the terms, the Soviet Union would provide millions of tons of supplies to Germany in exchange for German war machines and materiel. But the agreement was never finalized because on June 22, 1941 Germany invaded the Soviet Union, and in so doing, the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact and trade agreements were null and void.
For decades since the end of the World War Two, historians have been debating the motives of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and opinions continue to vary widely. Edward Hallett Carr, a British historian, Marxist and expert in the history of the Soviet Union, maintained that the Pact was necessary for the Soviet Union in order for them to buy time. From his point of view, the Russians were not ready for war in 1939 and needed "at least three years to prepare". (A statement which I believe to be preposterous.) He stated furthermore that "in return for non-intervention Stalin secured a breathing space of immunity from German attack." In other words, it was a defensive measure against the possibility of a German attack. Another historian, Werner Maser disputes the claim that the Soviet Union was threatened by Hitler, and asserts that "it is a legend" that was created by others, including Stalin himself. Neither Germany nor Japan possessed the military might to successfully invade the Soviet Union. Others like Viktor Suvoroy speculated that Stalin's primary reason for signing the Pact was due to his expectation that it would provoke a conflict between the capitalist countries of Western Europe.
It has been debated ad naseum that the Soviet Union needed to establish so-called buffer zones, using Poland and other Baltic countries, in order to defend itself from Germany. But history has often shown that this is merely a precursor for invasion and occupation. Shortly before the outbreak of war, Stalin attempted to negotiate a deal which would he hoped would allow Soviet troops passage through Polish territory in the event that Germany attacked. Polish authorities refused to give their consent. According to Polish Foreign Minister Jozef Beck, once the Red Army entered Polish territory, they might never leave.
The controversy about the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact has never abated since its inception. Typically, the Soviet Union would for decades continually deny the very existence of the secret protocol. But eventually they had to bow to public pressure: on August 23, 1986 demonstrations were held in 21 western cities including New York, London, Stockholm, Toronto, Seattle, and Perth. Tens of thousands of people joined the Black Ribbon Day Rallies to bring attention to the Secret Protocols. On August 23, 1989, marking the fiftieth anniversary of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a public demonstration, referred to as Baltic Way, was organized. An estimated two million people formed a human chain, linking hands over a span of 600 kilometers (370 miles) across Estonian SSR, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR. It was meant to attract international attention to their desire for independence from illegal Soviet occupation.
|Human chain in Lithuania|
August 23 has been proclaimed by the European Parliament as European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism. In addition, a parliamentary resolution was passed by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) which condemns both communism and fascism for starting World War Two. It calls upon the world to remember the victims of both Stalinism and Nazism on the 23rd of August. Oddly, the Russian legislature was offended by this proclamation and threatened the OSCE with "harsh consequences" - this, despite Russian condemnation of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
The United States Congress, in 1982 established Baltic Freedom Day, to be commemorated by Americans every June 14th.