Thirteen Years' War: Delegates of the Prussian Confederation pledge allegiance to Casimir IV of Poland, and the Polish king agreed to help in their struggle for independence from the Teutonic Knights. The war began as an uprising by Prussian cities and local nobility. In 1454 Casimir IV married Elisabeth of Hapsburg and the Prussian Confederation asked Casimir IV for help and offered to accept the king as protector instead of the Teutonic Order. When the King assented, war broke out supporters of the Prussian Confederation, backed by Poland and backers of government by the Teutonic Knights. The Thirteen Years' War ended in the victory of the Prussian Confederation and Poland and in the Second Peace of Thorn (1466).
Kazimierz Casimir Pulaski (dob) was a revolutionary and war cavalry officer.. He is praised for his contributions to the U.S. military in the American Revolution and known as "the Father of the American cavalry". Pulaski was one of the leading military commanders for the Bar Confederation and also fought against Russian domination of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. When the Uprising failed, Pulaski was forced into exile. Pulaski emigrated to North America, on the recommendation of Benjamin Franklin, to help in the cause of the American Revolutionary War. Pulaski distinguished himself throughout the revolution, most notably when he saved the life of George Washington. Pulaski became a General in the Continental Army, formed the Pulaski Cavalry Legion and reformed the American cavalry. He was one of only eight people to be awarded honorary United States citizenship. While leading a charge against the British at the Battle of Savannah, Pulaski was mortally wounded and died shortly after.
German forces on the Eastern Front launched Operation Spring Awakening, the last major German offensive of the war. The attack began near Lake Balaton, whose area contained some of the last oil reserves still accessible to the Axis. German command had to withdraw many troops from the failed Ardennes Offensive. Regardless, this operation was also a failure for Germany.