October 2, 2011

Warsaw Uprising 1944: October 2 POLISH HOME ARMY SURRENDERS


From left seated: Col.. Dipl. Kazimierz Iranek-Osmecki "Macarius", General Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, Lt.-Col. Dipl. Zygmunt Dobrowolski, "Zyndram."

For a second day the truce was in force from 5:00 a.m. By 7:00 p.m  About 16 thousand civilians have evacuated Warsaw. But even after two days of evacuation, still over 80% of civilians still remain in the district of Srodmiescie. Sources indicate that many Varsavians, civilians as well as insurgents, remain hidden in bunkers throughout the city, fearful of arrest and imprisonment in German camps, or execution.

Polish-German negotiations at the headquarters of General von dem Bach in Ozarow have gone on all day.  The plenipotentiary of the Germans was represented by  SS Obergruppenführer and Police General von dem Bach, Commander of the Warsaw area, and plenipotentiaries representing the Home Army were Col. Kazimierz Iranek Osmecki (Jarecki), and Lt.-Col. Zygmunt Dobrowolski (Zyndram),  the latter who were authorized such powers by Lieutenant-General Komorowski (Bor), Commander-in-Chief of the Home Army

The most important provisions of the agreement concern the situation of the Insurgents, as well as those those taken captive since August 1st, 1944. They have been granted the rights as those guaranteed by the Geneva Convention of August 27, 1939 concerning the treatment of prisoners of war.  The insurgents will not bear responsibility for their military and political activities before the rising; Home Army troops must lay down their weapons on the 4th and 5th of October; civilians evacuated from Warsaw will not suffer any consequences for their work in civilian authorities and administration.  The terms of the capitulation were drafted in a document and signed by Kazimierz, Bach and Dobrowolski.

Capitulation Document
1. On October 2nd, 1944, at 20:00 hours German time (21:00 hours Polish time) armed hostilities between the Polish forces fighting in the area of the city of Warsaw and the German forces shall cease.

The term Polish Fighting Forces to cover all Polish formations subject tactically to the Commander of the Home Army during the period of struggle from 1.8.44 [Aug. 1, 1944] down to the day of the signature of this agreement. Throughout the rest of this agreement these forces will be called "Forces of the Home Army."

2. The soldiers of the above specified Polish forces shall lay down their arms within the time determined in section two of this present agreement and shall proceed in compact formations with their Commanders to the assembly points. The places where arms are to be laid down and the assembly points will be established in detail in supplementary notices. The officers shall be entitled to retain side-arms.

3. At the same time the Home Army shall hand over to the German authorities all German soldiers taken prisoner and all persons of German nationality interned by the Polish authorities.

4. To assure order and security in the area of the city of Warsaw special units shall be appointed by the Commander of the Home Army. These units will be free from the immediate obligation to lay down their arms, and will remain in the city until the fulfillment of their charge. The German Command has the right to check the numerical size of these units.

5. From the moment of laying down their arms the soldiers of the Home Army are entitled to the rights of the Geneva Convention dated 27.8.29 [August 27, 1929], concerning the treatment of prisoners of war. Soldiers of the Home Army taken prisoner in the area of the city of Warsaw in the course of the struggle which began on August 1st, 1944, shall enjoy the same rights.

6. Those non-combatant persons accompanying the. Home Army, within the meaning of article 81 of the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war without distinction of sex, are entitled to the rights of prisoners of war. This affects in particular women workers an the staff and liaison, those giving help to soldiers, personnel of the information and press services, war correspondents, etc.

7. In applying the terms of the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war; officers' ranks recognized by the Command of the Home Army shall be accepted. Papers operative under a pseudonym shall be sufficient evidence of membership of the Home Army. The true surnames will be supplied for the information of the German military authorities.

Members of the Home Army who have lost their papers will be identified by a Commission of the Home Army, which will be appointed. Such commissions will be set up as required by the Home Army Command.

The terms of this present article also apply to persons indicated in article 6.

8. Persons being prisoners of war in the sense of the aforesaid articles shall not be persecuted for their military or political activities either during the period of struggle in Warsaw or in the preceding period, even if they had been discharged from prisoner of war camps. Any violations of German legal regulations as, in particular, failure to register as officers, previous escape from prisoner-of-war camps, illegal sojourn in Poland, etc., shall not entail punishment.

9. In regard to the civilian population who were in the city of Warsaw during the period of struggle, collective responsibility shall not be applied.

No person who was in Warsaw during the period of struggle shall be persecuted for functioning in time of war in the organization of administrative or judiciary authorities, in the security and public welfare services and in social and charitable institutions, or for co­operating in the battles and in military propaganda.     

Members of the above specified authorities and organizations shall not be persecuted even for political activities prior to the rising.

10. The evacuation of the civilian population from the city of Warsaw which the German Command has demanded shall be carried out at such a time and in such a manner as shall save the population superfluous suffering. The evacuation of objects of artistic, cultural or sacred value shall be facilitated. The German Command will take steps to protect such public and private property as remains in the city.

The details of the evacuation will be regulated by a separate agreement.


1. The Home Army Command binds itself to remove the barricades, first and foremost those situated nearest to the German lines, on October 3rd, 1944, beginning at 7:00 hours German time (8:00 hours Polish time).

2. The Home Army Command will deliver to the German lines all German prisoners of war, and also, so far as is possible, all German civilian internees to representatives of the German armed forces on this same day of October 2nd, 1944, by 24:00 hours German time (1:00 a.m. on October 3rd, Polish time) at the latest.

3. If the removal of the barricades is not begun at the time appointed, the German Command reserves the right to denounce this present agreement on October 3rd, 1944, beginning at 12:00 hours German time (13:00 hours Polish time), and the denunciation shall come into effect in two hours from the moment of handing the letter denouncing the agreement to the Polish lines.

4. The Home Army Command binds itself to lead one regiment, or three battalions from different regiments, out of Warsaw to lay down arms on October 4th, 1944. The crossing of the German lines by the head of these forces must follow on October 4th at 9:00 hours German time (10:00 hours Polish time).

5. The remaining forces of the Home Army, with the exception of the units specified in section one, clause 4 of this present agreement, shall leave Warsaw to lay down arms on October 5th, 1944.

6. Forces of the Home Army shall march out of the Polish line with weapons, but without ammunition, by the following routes:

(a) From City Centre South: the 2nd infantry regiment, via Śniadecki, August 6th, Sucha, and Filtrowa Streets.

(b) From City Centre North: (1) the 37th infantry regiment via Napoleon Square, Sikorski Avenue (Reichstrasse) and Grójecka Street (Radomstrasse); (2) the 15th infantry regiment via Grzybowska Street, Chłodna Street (Eisgrubenstrasse) and Wolska Street (Litzmannstädterstrasse).

7. The following forces of the Home Army shall remain in the city:

(a) For duties connected with the preservation of order, three infantry companies armed with pistols, automatic pistols and rifles;

(b) For guarding and handing over three regimental magazines with ammunition and equipment, thirty armed persons, as above;

(c) Medical units for care and transport of the wounded and the evacuation of the hospital to be unarmed.

8. The evacuation of the wounded and sick soldiers of the Home Army, as also of medical material, will be determined by the Medical Head of the German forces in consultation with the Medical Head of the Home Army. Regulations of the same nature for the evacuation of medical personnel's families will follow.

9. Soldiers of the Home Army shall be recognized by a white and red arm-band or pennons; or a Polish eagle, irrespective of whether they wear any kind of uniform or civilian clothing.

10. The agreeing parties confirm that transport, accommodation, guard and care of the prisoners of war shall remain solely within the control of the German armed forces (Deutsche Wehrmacht).

The German party guarantees that these tasks in regard to soldiers of the Home Army will not be entrusted to formations of foreign nationalities.

11. Women who are prisoners of war within the terms of section one, clause 6, will be accommodated in prisoner of war camps corresponding to officers' camps (Oflag) or other ranks' camps (Stalag) respectively.

The ranks of junior commander, commander, senior commander and inspector are regarded as women's officer ranks.

At their own desire women prisoners-of-war may be treated like the remaining population of Warsaw.

12. The German military authorities will immediately inform the Kriegsgefangenenhilfe der Y.M.C.A. in the town of Sagan of the location and number of the Home Army soldiers and accompanying persons accommodated in prisoners-of-war camps.

13. For technical help in carrying out this present agreement S.S. Obergruppenführer and General of Police von dem Bach shall have three Polish officers at his disposition.


In the event of the terms of this present agreement being violated, those who are found guilty will be held responsible.
General von dem Bach
Col. Iranek Kazimierz
Col. Dobrowolski

The agreement on cessation of hostilities in Warsaw was signed at 9:00 pm tonight marking an end to all military operations in Warsaw. After 63 days of the most brutal, bloody fighting, all hostilities ceased at 8:00 pm. today. Sources indicate that up until 7:30 pm General Bor's radio station had been broadcasting messages to the allies asking for "immediate assistance".  The broadcast was monitored by Polish receiving stations in London and was barely audible. It said, "Hello, Warsaw speaking...We are still fighting, Warsaw....Warsaw is not yet defeated...This town of one million people is being wiped out....We have given more than we could....Give us immediate assistance!! This assistance is due to us!!....We are today the conscience of the world...We....have confidence and are still waiting for your help. We were called "the inspiration of the fighting nations and the inspiration of the world....We, as a nation, have a right to live. We demand that right!!........"

General Tadeusz Komorowski "Bor" surrendered to General von dem Bach, while the Home Army prepares to lay down its weapons. Throughout the ordeal, Polish insurgents fought courageously despite overwhelming odds. Polish men, women and even children joined the underground by the thousands. They supplied vital intelligence information to the allies, and succeeded in conducting thousands of sabotage missions on German supply routes, as well as plots to assassinate many top-level SS and Gestapo officials, including that of Franz Kutschera, SS Police Chief of Warsaw who ambushed and gunned down by Polish fighters in February this year. Despite their horrendous suffering and hardship, and their tremendous courage in battles, surrender to the Germans is a bitter and cruel defeat to Poles who had hoped to regain Polish sovereignty and independence after five years of the most brutal oppression by the Nazi occupiers.

Anthony Eden, British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs announced today that General Sosnkowski was removed from his post as Commander in Chief of the Polish Armed Forces, and confirmed that the Polish Government appointed General Komorowski "Bor" to fill the position.

Sosnowski has been widely criticized by British authorities (and the Soviet government)  for an announcement published in a Polish weekly newspaper called Dziennik Polski (Polish Daily) on September 1st, 1944. The story has been picked up by British newspapers and has spread around the world.

Kazimierz Sosnkowski
Warsaw is not waiting for empty words of praise, for expressions of recognition, not for assurances of sympathy. Warsaw is waiting … Warsaw is waiting … for weapons and ammunition."

To add insult to injury Eden remarked that the appointment of General "Bor" was "unfortunate" because the Polish Communist Committee of National Liberation considers General Tadeusz Komorowski Bor "a criminal".  Meanwhile the British Minister of Information has been invited to speak with the Governors of the BBC. At issue is the implementation of British policy that will give less emphasis in future news bulletins concerning Polish political difficulties.

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