D Day Landings: Code named Operation Neptune (or Operation Overlord), it was massive Allied invasion of Normandy with the goal of liberating north-western Europe from Nazi occupation. It was the largest seaborne invasion in history with over 5,000 Allied landing and assault craft, 289 escort vessels, and 277 minesweepers joining the battle. Almost 160,000 Allied troops crossed the English Channel on D-Day, with 875,000 men disembarking by the end of June. Bombing of Normandy began around midnight with more than 2,200 British, Canadian, and American bombers attacking targets along the coast and further inland. The Germans had 570 aircraft stationed in Normandy and the Low Countries on D-Day. Allied casualties on the first day were at least 10,000, with 4,414 confirmed dead. The Germans lost 1,000 men. The Operation ended in an Allied victory on August 30, 1944, as German forces retreated across the Seine.
George Orwell's book, "1984" was published. "1984" is a dystopian novel set in "Airstrip One", formerly Great Britain, a province of the superstate Oceania. Oceania is a totalitarian state which is in a constant state of war, whose government exerts control over every aspect of society, and uses propaganda to manipulate public opinion. The citizens of Oceania are dictated to by a political regime that Orwell named, "English Socialism" which he shorted to "Ingsoc" in "Newspeak" the new language invented by the Government. Oceania is no longer a democracy but is under the control of the elite Inner Party. The Inner Party does not tolerate free-thinking people, and actively persecutes citizens who are independent thinkers, and non-conformists. The people are charged with "thought crimes", which are enforced by the "Thought Police." One of the catch phrases of the book, "Big Brother Is Watching You" was coined by Orwell, to refer to the supreme leader of Oceania, who has decreed that every citizen be under constant surveillance (mainly by Telescreens). The concept of "Big Brother" has become ubiquitous throughout the world, as citizens' civil liberties have steadily been eroded away.