Congress of Vienna concluded: In the wake of Napoleonic France's defeat and surrender in May 1814, after 25 years warfare, the Congress convened to devise a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The objective was not merely to restore old boundaries but to create a balance among the the main powers that would ensure future peace. France lost its recent conquests while Prussia, Austria and Russia enjoyed major territorial gains. Prussia added smaller German states in the west, Swedish Pomerania and 60% of the Kingdom of Saxony; Austria won Venice and much of northern Italy and Russia gained parts of Poland.
Joseph Tykociński Tykociner was a Polish engineer and a pioneer of sound-on-film technology. On June 9, 1922, Tykociner publicly demonstrated for the first time a motion picture with a soundtrack optically recorded directly onto the film. When Tykociner demonstrated the first sound-on-film motion picture recordings the projector had a photoelectric cell made by his Illinois colleague Jakob Kunz at its heart. In the first sounds ever publicly heard from a composite image-and-audio film, Helena Tykociner, the inventor's wife, spoke the words, "I will ring," and then rang a bell. Next, Ellery Paine, head of the university's Department of Electrical Engineering, recited the Gettysburg Address. The demonstration was written up in the New York World on July 30, 1922. A dispute between Tykociner and university president David Kinley over patent rights to the process thwarted its commercial application.