September 22, 2018




First Partition of Poland:  The partition treaty was ratified by Austria, Prussia and Russia.  As a result, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth lost about 30% of its territory and half of its population (four million people), though a large proportion were not ethnic Poles. By seizing northwestern Poland, Prussia instantly gained control over 80% of the Commonwealth's total foreign trade.  And by levying exorbitant customs duties, Prussia accelerated the economic collapse of the Commonwealth.  After the partition, the three powers demanded that King Stanislaw and the Sejm formally approve their action.  When there was no response, their combined armies invaded and occupied Warsaw and compelled the King by force to submit to their will.  The so-called "Partition Sejm" signed the treaty of secession on September 18, 1773 thereby renouncing all claims to the Commonwealth, and occupied territories. After the First Partition, Frederick II, King of Prussia, engaged in the plunder of Polish properties, confiscating Polish estates and monasteries to support German colonization. (1786 he ordered forced buy-outs of Polish holdings). Frederick II had 300,000 colonists settle on conquered territories and enforced Germanization on the Poles. He despised Polish citizens and boasted that he would "gradually...get rid of all Poles"


The German–Soviet parade.  As Soviet troops were approaching the town of Brest-Litovsk they looked upon their German counterparts who were already looting the town. Apparently, the German troops made it to the city and established their headquarters there, ahead of the Soviets.  Nazi German officials greeted the Soviet general and his "glorious Red Army". After a brief exchange of greetings, the Soviet and Nazi General met to discuss a joint parade through the town, including a lineup of soldiers from both armies in the main square.  The parade began at 16:00 and the "Victory Arches" were constructed and decorated with swastikas and red stars and through which German troops marched while the first unit of the Red Army, the 4th Battalion of 29th Light Tank Brigade rolled into the city. The Soviet and German generals praised each other for their victories over Polish armed forces.

German General was assassinated by Polish Resistance.  During the Siege of Warsaw, following the Invasion of Poland by Germany,  Werner von Fritsch,  a German General was assassinated by the Polish Resistance, while inspecting troops occupying the district of Praga, in Warsaw.  The shot tore through an artery in Fritsch's leg resulting in a swift death.  The Germans erected a memorial in the spot where he died, and which was demolished by the Poles during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. Fritsch was the second German general to be killed World War II—the first being SS commander Wilhelm Fritz von Roettig on September 10, 1939 near Opoczno.


Liquidation of Czestochowa Ghetto:  During Operation Reinhard, the Nazis began liquidating the ghetto the day after Yom Kippur.  The first wave of deportations concluded on the night of 7 October. The action was carried out by German units together with their Ukrainian and Latvian auxiliaries (Hiwis), known as Trawniki men, under the command of captain of the Schupo police, Paul Degenhardt. Every day, the Jews were being assembled on DaszyƄski square for "resettlement" and then transported by the Holocaust freight trains – men, women and children – to Treblinka extermination camp: around 40,000 victims in total. (Note: Operation Reinhard was the code name given to the secret German Nazi plan to exterminate the majority of Polish Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland)


Ewa Kopacz became Prime Minister of Poland, succeeding Donald Tusk. She was sworn into office on September 22, 2014 and was the second woman to hold that post after Hanna Suchocka.  In her first major policy speech as Prime Minister, Kopacz promised more continuity in Poland’s foreign policy. She stated that the Polish government would not tolerate a break-up of neighboring Ukraine and was committed to negotiating for an increase in U.S. military presence in Poland as a deterrent to Russian aggression. Following the EU summit of October 2014, Kopacz declared that 2015 would be the year that Poland improves its air quality, and imposed harsher laws on pollution from vehicles, and coal and wood burning stoves. In the 2015 national elections, Kopacz won 230,894 votes, the highest results, and received a mandate deputy of parliament VIII term. Unfortunately, her party lost the elections and in accordance with the Polish Constitution,and  had to resign her position along with all other members of her cabinet. Her successor, Beata Szydlo was sworn in on November 16, 2015. 

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