November 11, 2018




Polish victory in the Second Battle of Khotyn.  Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth forces under the command of Jan Sobieski defeated the Ottoman army.  Polish-Lithuanian forces and Wallachian regiments were 30 thousand strong. The Turks had 35 thousand troops under their command, armed with 120 guns. In this battle rockets of Kazimierz Siemienowicz were deployed successfully.  The victory allowed the Poles to revoke the unfavourable Peace of Buchach treaty,  and set the stage for the role Sobieski was to play in the Battle of Vienna in 1683.


Poland re-emerged as a nation-state after 123 years in oblivion. When World War I ended, and the Austro–Hungarian Empire fell apart, the Polish people began to disarm the occupiers and created the institutions of a sovereign and independent Polish state.  Freed from his German captivity, Józef Piłsudski assumed civil and military authority as Chief of State. Upon Pilsudski's arrival in Warsaw on November 11, 1918 a new era in Polish history began. Pilsudski, a descendant of the culture and traditions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, believed in a multi-ethnic Poland,  "a home of nations" including indigenous ethnic and religious minorities which he hoped would establish a strong union with the independent states of Lithuania and Ukraine.  Pilsudski is highly esteemed in the collective memory of the Polish nation, and is considered to be the founder of an independent Poland.


The Nazis burned down the Ezras Israel Synagogue in Łódź. The Nazis tormented the Jewish clergy, and ordered Rabbi Segal to tear up the Torah scrolls with his own hands.  The destruction ensued from November 10-11, 1939, and was documented in the epic poem written by Itzchak Katzenelson's  "Song of the Murdered Jewish People". The Great synagogue was designed by Polish architect Gustaw Landau-Gutenteger and was built in 1899-1904 from private donations by Jewish merchants in the region.  It's location was on ul. Wólczańska 6 Street.

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