July 25, 2018




Soviet–Polish Non-Aggression Treaty:  It was signed on July 25, 1932, effective for a three year period, ratified by both countries and registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on January 9, 1933. Negotiations for the treaty began in January 1926 in an effort to normalize the bilateral relationship with the Soviet Union. The Treaty was meant to fortify the Polish gains of the Peace of Riga,  and was to be balanced by a similar pact signed with Germany. However, the talks with Germany did not begin because the Polish–Soviet talks were interrupted in June 1927 Britain had broken diplomatic relations with the USSR and Soviet plenipotentiary Pyotr Voykov was murdered in Warsaw. Instead, Poland applied to the Briand-Kellogg Pact of 1928. The Polish-Soviet negotiations were resumed in Moscow in 1931  On May 5, 1934 the Treaty was extended to December 31, 1945 without amendment. Among the issues,, both sides agreed to renounce violence in bilateral relations, to resolve their problems by negotiations and to forgo any armed conflict with, or make alliances aimed at the other side.


Operation Most III (Polish for Bridge III) or Operation Wildhorn III (in British documents) was conducted by Polish soldiers of Armia Krajowa (Home Army) to steal top-secret information from the Nazis of their V-2 rocket program.  On the night of July 25, 1944, just past 10:00 p.m., an American C-47 transport plane, code-named "Dakota" lifted off from Brindisi in southern Italy bound for an abandoned airfield in Poland in a mission code-named "Motyl".  It landed in the center of a territory surrounded with German military units which were retreating westward, pursued by Soviet forces. At just past midnight, the Dakota circled above the landing location and the Polish partisans (who had been waiting for them) emerged from the forest nearby pulling carts laden with key V-2 components. As soon as the cargo was loaded onto the plane, the pilots attempted to take off but the Dakota had sunk deeply into the mud. After frantic attempts to dislodge the wheels, the plane was finally able to take off.  Two days later the C-47 transport plane arrived in London. British scientists studying the components began devising a way to interfere with the guidance of the V-2 missile using radio waves, but it was discovered that the V-2 mechanism was not designed to "react to countermeasures by radio."

URGENT, PERSONAL AND MOST SECRET MESSAGE FROM Mr CHURCHILL TO MARSHAL STALIN M. (no.303)  "Mikolajczyk is starting tomorrow night in response to the suggestion in the last paragraph of your message of July 23rd.  He is bringing with him M. Romer and M. Grabski. His Majesty's Government are making arrangements for his transport to Tehran or to Moscow as may be required. He desires a full and friendly conversation with you personally. He commands the full support of all his colleagues in the Polish Government, which of course we continue to recognise.  Our heartfelt wish is that all Poles may be united in clearing the Germans from their country and in establishing that free, strong and independent Poland working in friendship with Russia which you have proclaimed is your aim.  I have told the President of the United States of your telegram to me and have sent him also a copy of this. He will no doubt communicate with you."  (July 25th, 1944 )

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