October 12, 2018

OCTOBER 12 - DAILY CHRONICLES OF HISTORY

OCTOBER 12

1939

In the British House of Commons, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain formally replied to Hitler's so-called peace offer by saying that a settlement "must be a real and settled peace, not an uneasy truce interrupted by constant alarms and repeated threats." Chamberlain further explained, "Herr Hitler rejected all suggestions for peace until he had overwhelmed Poland, as he had previously overthrown Czechoslovakia. Peace conditions cannot be acceptable which begin by condoning aggression. The proposals in the German Chancellor's speech are vague and uncertain and contain no suggestion for righting the wrongs done to Czechoslovakia and to Poland. Even if Herr Hitler's proposals were more closely defined and contained suggestions to right these wrongs, it would still be necessary to ask by what practical means the German Government intend to convince the world that aggression will cease and that pledges will be kept. Past experience has shown that no reliance can be placed upon the promises of the present German Government."


1941

Stanisławów Ghetto Bloody Sunday Massacre:  On October 12, 1941  thousands of Jewish prisoners were forced to gather at the Ringplatz market square for a "selection", upon the orders of Hans Krueger.  Nazi forces, supplemented by the Orpo Reserve Police Battalion 133 from Lemberg, and the Ukrainian police, forcibly marched the prisoners to the Jewish cemetery  where large open pits had already been dug. Along the way, the Ukrainian and German guards brutally beat and tortured the prisoners.  The Jews were forced to surrender their valuables, and were ordered to strip naked and proceed to the edge of the grave sites.  The killing squad opened fire, joined by units of the Nurnberg Order Police and the Bahschutz railroad police.  The victims either fell into the graves or were ordered to jump in before being killed. Between 10,000 and 12,000 Jewish men, women and children were murdered. The killing began at 12 noon and continued for many hours without ceasing.


1943

The Battle of Lenino was a tactical World War II engagement that took place between October 12 and October 13, 1943, north of the village of Lenino in the Mogilev region of Byelorussia. The battle was a segment of a much larger Soviet operation, whose objective was to clear the eastern bank of the Dnieper river of German forces, and thus break through the Panther-Wotan line of defences. Polish and Soviet forces succeeded in breaking through German defences but failed to maintain their advance due to lack of artillery support. They were ordered to hold their ground but relief never arrived. After two days  the Polish 1st Tadeusz Kościuszko Infantry Division had to withdraw its forces, having suffered 25% casualties. The Battle of Lenino is prominent in Polish military history, because it was one of the first major military operation of Polish Armed Forces in the East.



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