January 4, 2018




Lenin's Testament:  Lenin's letters to Congress, a two part document dictated by Lenin on Dec. 23–26, 1922, and Jan. 4, 1923, was addressed to a future Communist party Congress. It contained proposals for changes to the Soviet political hierarchy and provided concise evaluation of the six party leaders - Joseph Stalin, Leon Trotsky, Grigory Y. Zinovyev, Lev B. Kamenev, Nikolay Bukharin, and Georgy Pyatakov. The testament was written by Lenin while he was recovering from a severe stroke, and the document concluded with a recommendation that Stalin be removed from his position as secretary-general of the party The second part of the letters was a postscript, dictated by Lenin after he became convinced that Stalin was mishandling the suppression of dissent in Georgia, but on a personal level, Lenin was critical of Stalin's abusive behaviour towards his wife, Krupskaya. The addendum described Stalin as "too rude". Several copies were made and sealed with the instruction that they were to be opened by Lenin personally or, in the event of his death, by Krupskaya. 


Most Respected Economist in Poland: Jan Krzystof Bielecki became premier of Poland. Bielecki is a Polish liberal politician and economist. In the early 1990s, Bielecki was leading figure of the Gdańsk-based Liberal Democratic Congress and served as Prime Minister of Poland for most of the 1991. As a member of the Sejm and one of the leaders of the Liberal Democratic Congress, Bielecki continued his support for stronger political and economic integration into Europe. During his post-premier period in the Sejm, Bielecki served in the Committee on Foreign Affairs.  In a speech from the Sejm in May 1992, Bielecki expressed strong support for Poland's entry into the EEC, saying "Here is the strategy, here is a Polish place in uniting Europe, with Poles benefiting from collective security, Poles enjoying the freedom of movement of people, goods and capital. This is an opportunity to participate in the political structures and the global economy." In the 1990s, Bielecki was a strong proponent for greater integration with NATO. In July 1992, Bielecki supported the appointment of Hanna Suchocka as Prime Minister. Later she appointed Bielecki as a Minister without portfolio, responsible for  relations with the EEC under a coalition agreement between Suchocka's Democratic Union and the Liberal Democratic Congress   Following his political service, he was president of Bank Pekao, chairman of the Polish Institute of International Affairs, and since the early 2000s, a member of the Civic Platform party.  The Warsaw Business Journal in its 2010 issue names Bielecki as one of the most respected economists in Poland.

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