January 23, 2018




Second Partition of Poland: Prussia & Russia signed a partition treaty to divide the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and agreed that all Polish reforms would be annulled. In the presence of Russian troops, the Deputies to the Grodno Sejm, the last Sejm of the Commonwealth agreed to the Russian and Prussian territorial demands. The Grodno Sejm became infamous not only as the last Sejm of the Commonwealth, but because its deputies had been bribed and coerced by the Russians (Russia and Prussia wanted legal sanction from Poland for their demands). The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was reduced to a small buffer state headed by a puppet king (Stanisław August Poniatowski) who was powerless to oppose the partitions and save Poland from destruction. Russia took 250,000 square kilometres (97,000 sq mi), while Prussia took 58,000 square kilometres (22,000 sq mi). The Commonwealth lost about 307 000 km², being reduced to 215 000 km².


Polish–Czechoslovak War erupted following border disagreements regarding Cieszyn Silesia. The Czechoslovak government in Prague requested that the Poles cease their preparations for parliamentary elections in the area that had been designated Polish in the interim agreement as no sovereign rule was to be executed in the disputed areas. The Polish government declined and Czechoslovak units attacked the Polish part of Cieszyn Silesia in an effort to prevent the elections in the contested territory. Under pressure by the Entente, the attack was put to a halt, which resulted with a new demarcation line expanding territory controlled by Czechoslovakia. In July 1920, it led to the division of the region of Cieszyn Silesia leaving a large Polish minority in Zaolzie. Disatisfied with the territorial division, Poland annexed Zaolzie in 1938.


Polish Statesman Ignacy Paderewski returned to public life in 1940 when he accepted the position as Head of the National Council of Poland, a Polish parliament in exile in London. He made numerous radio broadcasts, carried by over a hundred radio stations in US and Canada, asking for public protest over German aggression in Poland, and Europe.


Bulgarian Anti-Semitism: The Law for protection of the nation was a Bulgarian law, based on the Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany. It was also directed against Jews and others. The laws imposed changes in the names of Jews, rules about place of residence, confiscation of their assets and possessions, exclusion from public service as well as banning them from economic and professional activity. It was in effect from January 23, 1941 to November 27, 1944.

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