October 8, 2011

WARSAW UPRISING 1944: COMPLETE INDEX OF BLOG POSTS AUGUST 1, 2011 to OCTOBER 6, 2011


THE WARSAW UPRISING

The Warsaw Uprising was the most ferocious battle fought during WWII. Never before or since has the world witnessed such savagery, courage, and betrayal. Savagery of the SS Nazi storm troopers as they wielded all the power of the German Wehrmacht against the Polish Home Army. Courage of the Polish insurgents as they fought fearlessly against overwhelming and impossible odds. Betrayal of Poland by its' closest allies (England and the United States) which promised to come to the aid of Warsaw in its' darkest hours, and instead chose political expediency instead of Honour.

Though the allies won the war, freedom came at a very high price. Poland - the 4th largest ally lost the war, it's country and independence - languishing behind the Iron Curtain for more than 45 years. After almost half a century, the silence has finally been broken and the facts revealed. From August 1, 2011 to October 6, 2011, Polish Greatness (Blog) published daily posts documenting the events of the Warsaw Uprising - the courage of the Polish Insurgents in fighting against the overwhelming force of the Wehrmacht, the ferocious and bloody massacres, and battles, and the determination of the insurgents to fight to the very end.


COMPLETE INDEX OF BLOG POSTS
WARSAW UPRISING 1944

Click on the following links to read blog posts

MONTH OF AUGUST


















MONTH OF SEPTEMBER




















MONTH OF OCTOBER












REMEMBER THE UPRISING




October 6, 2011

Warsaw Uprising 1944: October 6 Compendium of Resources




COMPENDIUM OF RESOURCES
WARSAW UPRISING 1944


RECOMMENDED WEBSITES

Warsaw Uprising 1944
(Project InPosterum)

Warsaw Uprising 1944
Polonia Today.com

Written in English, Before, During and After the
Powstanie Warszawskie - The Warsaw Uprising
(compiled and edited by Lester P. Gideon)

by Wanda Koscia


Translated from Polish by Antoni Bohdanowicz

The Warsaw Rising 
Poland In Exile.com


by Wilhelm Ratuszynski

Poland in Exile



MILESTONES IN THE STORY OF THE POLISH AMERICAN CONGRESS
THE FIRST 50 YEARS 1944-1994

German Crimes Committed During the Warsaw Uprising Part I
Document compiled by Dr. S.D. Stein
Faculty of Humanities, Languages and Social Sciences
University of the West of England, Bristol

On the Front Lines: Interview with Wladyslaw Bartoszewski
Former Minister for Foreign Affairs & Participant and Historian
of the Warsaw Uprising
September 1, 2004 The Warsaw Voice online

Polish Special Duties Flight no. 1586 and the Warsaw Uprising
by Michael A. Peszke
Summer 2006 Air Power History

Warsaw Uprising 1944
(Polish Home Army ex-Servicemen Association - Montreal Branch)

WARSAW UPRISING: The Forgotten Soldiers of World War II
CNN Classroom Edition - Educator Guide (Grades 7-12)

A GERMAN SOLDIER'S PERSPECTIVE OF THE WARSAW UPRISING 1944
by Wlodzimierz Nowak and Angelika Kuzniak  23-08-2004
(reprinted on Polish Greatness.com website)

Muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego

Remembering the Warsaw Uprising
by Maciej Siekierski
Military History On Line

The Warsaw Uprising
by Lukasz Pajewski
Info Poland - Poland in the Classroom

The Warsaw Uprising
Polish American Journal.com
Dedicated to the Preservation, Promotion, and Continuance
of Polish American Culture

The Kampinos Group
by Ezy.Ryder

Warsaw Uprising
by Polish Greatness.com (the website)






BOOKS ABOUT WARSAW UPRISING 1944



NOTHING BUT HONOUR
The Story of the Warsaw Uprising 1944
by Janusz Kazimierz Zawodny



THE WARSAW UPRISING OF 1944
by Wlodzimierz Borodziej and Barbara Harshav



That the Nightingale Return: Memoir of the Polish
Resistance, the Warsaw Uprising,
and German POW Camps
by Leokadia Rowinska



A Memoir of the Warsaw Uprising
by Miron Bialoszewski, and Madeline Levine



To Hope Or Die: From Warsaw Uprising
to Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp and After, Memoirs of a Survivor
by Edmund Szybicki



Lack of Outside Support during the Warsaw Uprising
by Frederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome, and John McBrewster



Military History of the Warsaw Uprising
by Frederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome, and John McBrewster



Destroy Warsaw! Hitler's Punishment, Stalin's Revenge
by Andrew Borowiec



Airlift to Warsaw: The Rising of 1944
by Neil D. Orpen



Rising: The Battle for Warsaw
by Norman Davies



The Warsaw Rising of 1944
by Jan Ciechanowski



Poland Alone: Britain, SOE and the
 Collapse of the Polish Resistance 1944
by Jonathan Walker



Krystyna: The Tragedy of Polish Resistance
by Simon Wiesenthal



Women Heroes of World War II: 26 stories of Espionage,
Sabotage, Resistance and Rescue
By Kathryn J. Atwood



The Civilian Population and the Warsaw Uprising of 1944
by Joanna K. Hanson



When God Looked the Other Way: An Odyssey of War, Exile and Redemption
by Wesley Adamczyk





RECOMMENDED VIDEOS ABOUT WARSAW UPRISING







BEST FILM ABOUT WARSAW UPRISING

Kanał


Scene from film "Kanal"







Warsaw Uprising 1944: October 6 The Aftermath



(9/9) The Warsaw Uprising (Powstanie Warszawskie) (00:01:28m)

After the Poles had evacuated Warsaw the Germans in defiance of the terms of the capitulation agreement, began a wholesale destruction of the city. German Command dispatched special teams of German engineers dispersed throughout Warsaw, setting fires, and systematically destroyed buildings. Demolition squads of flamethrowers and explosive experts set about their task to obliterate the very existence of Warsaw, building by building, block by block. Nothing was overlooked - historical monuments, the Polish national archives, libraries and musuems and their priceless manuscripts and collections, palaces - the very cultural heritage of a people was blasted into oblivion, gone forever. Nothing was left to show that there used to be a great cosmopolitan city here - but just a pile of rubble and ashes. According to the Germans, the area was slated to become a military transit station.



Warsaw 1944: A Necropolis (00:04:15m)

Meanwhile, Stalin's Red Army remained poised across the banks of the Vistula River observing the macabre destruction being carried out. In the rest of Poland, Soviet NKVD agents were hunting down Polish insurgents and executing them; many other Poles were deported to Russian gulags.

At the end of German operation, Warsaw's public losses were estimated as follows:

10,455 Buildings
923 Historical Buildings (94% of Warsaw)
25 Churches
Monuments
14 Libraries
The National Library
81 elementary schools 
64 high schools
Warsaw University 
Polytechnic


Over 516,000 individual pieces of art were looted by German armies including 2,800 paintings by European painters,11,000 paintings by Polish painters, 1,400 sculptures, 75,000 manuscripts, 25,000 maps, 90,000 books of which 20,000 were printed before the year 1800, and hundreds of thousands of other invaluable artistic and historical artifacts. Among the many priceless paintings destroyed was the painting of "Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist and St. Stanislaw" painted by Palma il Giovane.  The painting was once looted by Napoleon but returned to Warsaw in the 1820s.  



The exact amount of losses to private and public property, including cultural and scientific artifacts was quite considerable. It was not until the late 1940s that efforts were made to estimate the total value of damages - it came to US$30 billion. (In 2004, the President of Warsaw and subsequently President of Poland, appointed an historical commission to review the evaluation and estimated losses to have been at least US$31.5 billion, however these estimates were increased in to $45 billion in 2004 and to $54.6 billion in 2005.)

The Warsaw Uprising was the most tragic battle of World War II. Over 18,000 Polish insurgents were killed or missing in action, over 5,000 wounded, 15,000 sent to POW camps. (However other sources mention that 60,000 AK soldiers were killed during the Uprising.)
Over 200,000 Polish civilians died in the 63 days of battle, and about 700,000 were expelled from Warsaw, and 55,000 sent to concentration camps, including 13,000 to Auschwitz.  About 3,400 insurgents chose to go underground and continue to fight. Berling's Polish Army suffered 5,660 casualties KIA, MIA, or WIA. 

German casualties were about 10,000 KIA, 7,000 MIA, and 9,000 WIA.  Up to 2,000 Germans were captured and taken prisoners by the Polish insurgents. German material losses were: three airplanes (two outside Warsaw in Kampinos forest ), 310 tanks, self-propelled artillery, armored cars, 4 rocket launchers, 22 artillery pieces (caliber 75mm), and 340 trucks and cars.

By January 1945 about 85% of the buildings had been destroyed: 10% damages were sustained as a result of the September 1939 campaign and other combat; 15% during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (which had taken place in April 1943); 25% during the Uprising, and 35% due to systematic German actions after the Uprising.  

General Dwight Eisenhower, Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe, visited Warsaw in 1945 and was so moved by the scene of utter destruction that he stated, “I have seen many towns destroyed, but nowhere have I been faced with such destruction.”

Poland had lost a staggering 38 per cent of its national assets whereas France and Britain lost only 1.5 % and 0.8% respectively.  Moreover,  Poland lost vast regions of their country including two great cultural centers of Wilno and Lwow. 

Despite the so-called "liberation" of Poland by Soviet troops on January 17, 1945, Poland, the 4th largest Ally, had really lost the war, betrayed by Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union.












ROYAL CASTLE DESTROYED (above photo & aerial view)





Powstanie Warszawskie 1944 (The Warsaw Uprising 1944) (00:03:06m)






October 5, 2011

Warsaw Uprising 1944: October 5 POLAND GOES INTO CAPTIVITY

Tribute Warsaw Uprising 1944 (00:03:22m)




For the second day insurgents have been laying down their armaments and surrendering to the Germans. At about 9:00 this morning the remainder of Polish regiments began leaving Warsaw. The 72nd Infantry Regiment of the AK under the command of Lt. Col. Jan Szczurek-Cergowski “Slawbor” left the district of southern Srodmiescie marching along the pre-determined exit routes - Sniadeckich, 6-go Sierpnia, Sucha and Filtrowa Streets. 


They were followed by members of the Home Army Headquarters, the Command of the 10th Infantry Division, and the National Armed Forces "Sokol" group under the command of Col. Spirydion Koizewski "Topor" as well as the 36th Infantry Regiment under the command of Major Stanislaw Blaszczak "Rog" from northern Srodmiescie. Also falling into line were staff members of the Warsaw District of the Corps and the 28th Infantry division and the Municipal Headquarters marching along Zelazna, Aleje Jerozolimska and Grojecka Streets.  The 15th Infantry Regiment under the command of Lt. Col Franciszek Rataj "Pawel" was the last group to leave Warsaw - the route they took was along Grzybowska, Chlodna and Wolska Streets.  A covering battalion under the command of Lt. Col. Franciszek Pacek “Mscislaw” will remain in Warsaw for the next few days and will be expected to lay down arms only on October 9th, 1944.



German soldiers directed the columns of insurgents to Ozarow from where they were boarded onto freight trrains and transported to Stalag 334 at Lamsdorf (Lambinowice) in Slask Opolski. Once having arrived the insurgents will be registered and sent to POW camps in Germany and Austria.

Home Army Commander-in-Chief General Tadeusz Komorowski “Bor” and five generals: Tadeusz Pelczynski “Grzegorz”, Antoni Chrusciel “Monter”, Tadeusz Kossakowski “Krystynek”, Kazimierz Sawicki “Prut” and Albin Skroczyński “Laszcz” were taken into captivity along with 11,668 soldiers exclusively from the Srodmiescie district.  Meanwhile, General Leopold Okulicki “Niedzwiadek” has left the city together with the civilians. Thenceforth Okulicki has been put in charge of further underground activity.  


(L) General Bor
The remaining civilians were forced to leave the city, although there are reports that many of them have decided not to leave and be sent to POW camps. Among them are a few insurgents who have been designated by the Home Army to remain and continue the struggle.  At least 55,000 civilians will end up in concentration camps, and be categorized as "criminals" by the German Nazi authorities. An additional 150,000 will be transported to Germany for forced labor.




During the two-month Uprising approximately 13,000 Warsaw residents were rounded up and arrested by German troops and deported to Auschwitz concentration camp. Polish prisoners comprised of government officials, professors, physicians, artists, blue-collar workers, pregnant women, the elderly, the sick and injured. Many were transferred to labor camps in Germany and worked to death.  About 550,000 Polish residents from Warsaw were deported to Durchgangslager 121 (Dulag 121) in addition to 100,000 civilians from outlying areas. In the months of August, September and October approximately 650,000 Poles had passed through the Pruszkow transit camp.

Pruszkow transit camp

The Uprising, which was encouraged by Stalin, had given the Polish people renewed hope that Poland would soon be liberated.  British and American promises for military assistance convinced the Poles to continue fighting to the very bitter end.  However, unbeknowst to Prime Minister Mikolajczyk, Churchill and Roosevelt had already ceded Polish territory to Stalin at the Teheran Conference a year before.  For 63 days the Poles fought in vain, waiting for help that would never arrive. A tragedy more brutal than capitulation was the relevation that the Allies aided and abeted Stalin's chicanery.  In a final coup de grace, Prime Minister Churchill sent an official letter today to Polish Prime Minister Mikolajczyk.  The following is an excerpt:

Prime Minister Mikolajczyk
"My Dear Excellency, I received with deep sorrow your letter telling me that resistance had ceased in Warsaw. As you know, we were anxious to do everything in our power to bring assistance to General Komorowski’s forces and nothing but insuperable difficulties of weather and geography prevented our assistance being more effective."






October 4, 2011

Warsaw Uprising 1944: October 4 NOT YET IS POLAND LOST!!!



Warsaw Uprising. The End (00:00:52sec)


It has been 63 days days of long and bitter struggle for the Polish people, days marked by despair and hope, pain and suffering and constant battle against a hated enemy. It has all come to an end. Early this morning Polish regiments congregated near the Technical University in Warsaw in preparation for a "trial surrender". Barricades that had been there before had been "symbolically" removed yesterday. The Company commander issued his final orders and gave his last speech as the soldiers listened intently, and then at the end, they sang the national anthem, "Not Yet Is Poland Lost ". Their voices rang out across the square with such power - clearly indicating that while the Polish people have surrendered they have not by any means been defeated. Finally at the command of "Attention" the soldiers burst into cheers and shouts of "Long live our beloved Polish Republic"!!! 




Polish National Anthem (00:02:51m)


General and Commander-in-Chief of the Home Army Tadeusz Komorowski “Bor” signed the last cable to the Polish Government in exile in London, which will be dispatched tomorrow morning.  General Bor and General von dem Bach met each other today and despite the conclusion of negotiations, General von dem Bach continued to pressure Bor for additional concessions. He demanded that General Bor issue an order to all regiments of the AK, in addition to those located outside Warsaw, to "cease underground activities against German forces".  Moreover he insisted that Polish Communist insurgents be excluded from the protection of the Geneva Convention in regard to treatment of prisoners of war.  In both cases, General Bor adamantly refused to comply.



General Bor surrenders to General von dem Bach Zelewski


Left: General Tadeusz Komorowski "Bor"

At 9:00 am the first Home Army units to leave Warsaw was the 21st Infantry Regiment under the command of Lt. Col. Stanlislaw Kaminski "Daniel". They were among the troops that fought so bravely in Srodmiescie South. They marched along Sniadeckich, 6-go Sierpnia, Such and Filtrowa Streets and were closely followed by other companies, marching four abreast.







Among them were old and young men as well as women, each clad in spruced up uniforms or civvies and immaculately groomed. Each wore the white and red armbands of the AK, or the Polish eagle on their caps. Many wore military decorations pinned to their lapels, and many sported their weapons which were meticulously cleaned and gleaming.

German officers and soldiers lined each side of the street. In a most unexpected gesture, they lowered their weapons and watched the retreat in silence. A few German soldiers saluted as a show of respect.

The rest of the regiments will be leaving Warsaw tomorrow morning and according to the Capitulation Act they will surrender their armaments and ammunition.  Soldiers of the 21st and 72nd infantry regiments of the Home Army have already deposited their guns and ammunition on the corner of Wspolna and Marszalkowska Street; the 36th infantry regiment in Napoleona Square, and the 15th infantry regiment in Grzybowski Square.

While the Polish regiments were preparing for surrender, SS officer Bronislav Kaminski was court-martialled today by the German military court. He and his entire staff were sentenced to death and shot by a German firing squad. The event was reported by German Command, however in an effort to avoid reprisals from the men of SS STRONA the Germans stated that Kaminski was assassinated by the Polish Armia Krajowa. Kaminski was the notorious commander of the SS Sturmbrigade RONA which participated with the SS Dirlewanger and SS Reinfarth in the bloody massacres at Wola and Ochota in early August. In just a few days they slaughtered 40,000 to 100,000 Polish men, women, and children. It was one of the bloodiest of massacres during the war.


Warsaws' underground newspapers published and distributed their last issues today: Dziennik Radiowy, Robotnik, Wiadomości Powstańcze and No. 102 of the Biuletyn Informacyjny. Polish underground radio aired their last broadcasts today, including the famous "Blyskawica" radio station. Jan Georgica Grzegorzewicz" took the microphone at Blyskawica today mentioning only the technical parameters of the station, and its working conditions. At 7:30 pm Jan broadcast the Warszawianka song in farewell, and at the end destroyed the transmitter with a hammer.

Warszawianka (00:02:00m)






October 3, 2011

Warsaw Uprising 1944: October 3 General Bor's Farewell Address to Soldiers of Fighting Warsaw



SOLDIERS OF FREEDOM- Home Army-Armia Krajowa (00:02:25m)


General Komorowski "Bor"
Polish Command conducted final briefings for officers and assemblies for soldiers today. A farewell order was read aloud to the troops by General Antoni Chrusciel "Monter", the Home Army Warsaw Corps Commander. Office matters were concluded and distinctions and promotions conferred. Sources indicate that Polish Command has entrusted a few of their soldiers with the task of concealing an undisclosed number of armaments as well as important documents.

General Tadeusz Komorowski "Bor" Commander of the Polish Armed Forces delivered an address to his soldiers for the last time. His farewell message was poignant yet unwaveringly optimistic for a future independent Polish State. Here is his message translated into English.




Soldiers of Fighting Warsaw! The heroic deeds of Polish soldiers which constitute two months of fighting in Warsaw are proofs, however full of horror, of our desire for freedom — our strongest desire. Our battle in the capital, in the face of death and destruction, stands in the forefront of famous deeds of Polish soldiers during this war. They will be a lasting memorial to our spirit and love of freedom. Although we were not able to gain a military victory over our enemy (since the general situation in our country was not favourable to our endeavour), those two months of fighting for every foot of Warsaw’s streets and walls have fulfilled a political and ideological goal. Our struggle will influence the fate of our nation, since it is a contribution without equal in its heroism and sacrifice to the defence of our independence.

Today, when the enemy’s technical superiority has forced us into the central sector of our city — the only sector still under our control — when the city’s ruins are crowded with soldiers and the heroic civilian population, suffering from unbearable conditions of living on the battlefield, when we have not enough of even the most primitive food, and when there is virtually no chance of defeating the enemy, we have to confront the problem of complete destruction of the population by the enemy and the chance of having most of the fighting soldiers and hundreds of thousands of the civilian population buried under the ruins. I have decided to call a halt to the fighting.

I thank all the soldiers for their military bearing that never wavered under the most difficult conditions.
I pay homage to the dead for their suffering and sacrifice.

I want to express the admiration and gratitude of the fighting units to the population, and their affection for it. I would also like to ask their forgiveness for the transgressions, which no doubt occurred more than once in the course of this long fight.

During the cease-fire discussion I have done my best to assure our soldiers of all the rights due to them, to create the best possible living conditions and care for the civilian population so that they might be spared as much as possible of the suffering caused by the war.

I hereby ask of all soldiers, my very dear comrades during these two months of fighting, whose will to fight was unbroken to the last moment, to obey in good order all commands that will be issued as a consequence of our decision to stop fighting.

The civilian population is to obey all evacuation orders issued by me, the commanding officer of the city and the civilian administration. With faith in the final victory of our just cause, believing in our beloved, great and happy country, we will continue to be the soldiers and citizens of Free Poland, pledging allegiance to the flag of the Republic.

Komorowski
Lieutenant-General
Commander-in-Chief, Home Army


Early this morning the Polish insurgents started pulling down barricades closest to the German lines, as per the terms stipulated by the Capitulation Agreement. Thousands of Varsovians have evacuated the city. Columns of civilians moved slowly along three thoroughfares: Sniadeckich and 6-go Sierpnia Streets towards Filtrowa Street - along Zelazna and Aleje Jerozolimskie Streets towards Grojecka Street, and along Grzybowska and Chlodna Streets towards Wolska Street.








Amid feelings of bitterness and anguish there was also a very palpable sense of elation among the insurgents, that despite the unavoidable outcome, the Poles have a sense of duty well done. With heads held high and marching briskly in unison were 15,378 insurgents, among whom were 922 officers and 2,000 women. Along the streets, every now and then, civilians would fall to their knees as the columns of insurgents passed by them. It was deeply moving and almost shocking to witness this expression of reverence for the insurgents, an act which in Poland is reserved only for the Holy Sacrement.


They fought as free men and women for 63 days, and now they are going into German captivity. About 15,000 Poles will be sent to the transition camp in Pruszkow and transported to POW camps in Germany. Others will be sent to remote areas of Poland. About 5,000 wounded soldiers will be sent to hospitals. In the two-month battle about 17,000 insurgents were killed and over 200,000 civilians murdered by the Germans.

Polish Soldiers In Pruszkow Transit Camp

In accordance with the provisions of the Capitulation Agreement, a Polish military contingent will remain in Warsaw for the next several days to maintain order.  Three armed AK companies have been selected, consisting of about 300 soldiers from the "Kilinski" battalion, and about 120 soldiers from the “Milosz” battalion.

German radio broadcast a report today declaring that "after weeks of fierce fighting which has led to the almost total destruction of the city, the remaining rebels, deserted by all their Allies, have given up and surrendered."  Concurrently the last issue of Biuletyn Informacyjny, the insurgents' daily newspaper, published an article stating that “nobody in Poland, or in Warsaw, or in the world, can...say that we (surrendered) too early.”  For 63 days the Poles fought courageously.


I have fought the good fight,
I have finished the course,
I have kept the faith.
2 Timothy 4:7




October 2, 2011

Warsaw Uprising 1944: October 2 POLISH HOME ARMY SURRENDERS

SIGNING OF CAPITULATION!!


From left seated: Col.. Dipl. Kazimierz Iranek-Osmecki "Macarius", General Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, Lt.-Col. Dipl. Zygmunt Dobrowolski, "Zyndram."


For a second day the truce was in force from 5:00 a.m. By 7:00 p.m  About 16 thousand civilians have evacuated Warsaw. But even after two days of evacuation, still over 80% of civilians still remain in the district of Srodmiescie. Sources indicate that many Varsavians, civilians as well as insurgents, remain hidden in bunkers throughout the city, fearful of arrest and imprisonment in German camps, or execution.

Polish-German negotiations at the headquarters of General von dem Bach in Ozarow have gone on all day.  The plenipotentiary of the Germans was represented by  SS Obergruppenführer and Police General von dem Bach, Commander of the Warsaw area, and plenipotentiaries representing the Home Army were Col. Kazimierz Iranek Osmecki (Jarecki), and Lt.-Col. Zygmunt Dobrowolski (Zyndram),  the latter who were authorized such powers by Lieutenant-General Komorowski (Bor), Commander-in-Chief of the Home Army

The most important provisions of the agreement concern the situation of the Insurgents, as well as those those taken captive since August 1st, 1944. They have been granted the rights as those guaranteed by the Geneva Convention of August 27, 1939 concerning the treatment of prisoners of war.  The insurgents will not bear responsibility for their military and political activities before the rising; Home Army troops must lay down their weapons on the 4th and 5th of October; civilians evacuated from Warsaw will not suffer any consequences for their work in civilian authorities and administration.  The terms of the capitulation were drafted in a document and signed by Kazimierz, Bach and Dobrowolski.



(8/9) The Warsaw Uprising (Powstanie Warszawskie) (00:01:03m)


Capitulation Document
1. On October 2nd, 1944, at 20:00 hours German time (21:00 hours Polish time) armed hostilities between the Polish forces fighting in the area of the city of Warsaw and the German forces shall cease.

The term Polish Fighting Forces to cover all Polish formations subject tactically to the Commander of the Home Army during the period of struggle from 1.8.44 [Aug. 1, 1944] down to the day of the signature of this agreement. Throughout the rest of this agreement these forces will be called "Forces of the Home Army."

2. The soldiers of the above specified Polish forces shall lay down their arms within the time determined in section two of this present agreement and shall proceed in compact formations with their Commanders to the assembly points. The places where arms are to be laid down and the assembly points will be established in detail in supplementary notices. The officers shall be entitled to retain side-arms.

3. At the same time the Home Army shall hand over to the German authorities all German soldiers taken prisoner and all persons of German nationality interned by the Polish authorities.

4. To assure order and security in the area of the city of Warsaw special units shall be appointed by the Commander of the Home Army. These units will be free from the immediate obligation to lay down their arms, and will remain in the city until the fulfillment of their charge. The German Command has the right to check the numerical size of these units.

5. From the moment of laying down their arms the soldiers of the Home Army are entitled to the rights of the Geneva Convention dated 27.8.29 [August 27, 1929], concerning the treatment of prisoners of war. Soldiers of the Home Army taken prisoner in the area of the city of Warsaw in the course of the struggle which began on August 1st, 1944, shall enjoy the same rights.

6. Those non-combatant persons accompanying the. Home Army, within the meaning of article 81 of the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war without distinction of sex, are entitled to the rights of prisoners of war. This affects in particular women workers an the staff and liaison, those giving help to soldiers, personnel of the information and press services, war correspondents, etc.

7. In applying the terms of the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war; officers' ranks recognized by the Command of the Home Army shall be accepted. Papers operative under a pseudonym shall be sufficient evidence of membership of the Home Army. The true surnames will be supplied for the information of the German military authorities.

Members of the Home Army who have lost their papers will be identified by a Commission of the Home Army, which will be appointed. Such commissions will be set up as required by the Home Army Command.

The terms of this present article also apply to persons indicated in article 6.

8. Persons being prisoners of war in the sense of the aforesaid articles shall not be persecuted for their military or political activities either during the period of struggle in Warsaw or in the preceding period, even if they had been discharged from prisoner of war camps. Any violations of German legal regulations as, in particular, failure to register as officers, previous escape from prisoner-of-war camps, illegal sojourn in Poland, etc., shall not entail punishment.

9. In regard to the civilian population who were in the city of Warsaw during the period of struggle, collective responsibility shall not be applied.

No person who was in Warsaw during the period of struggle shall be persecuted for functioning in time of war in the organization of administrative or judiciary authorities, in the security and public welfare services and in social and charitable institutions, or for co­operating in the battles and in military propaganda.     

Members of the above specified authorities and organizations shall not be persecuted even for political activities prior to the rising.

10. The evacuation of the civilian population from the city of Warsaw which the German Command has demanded shall be carried out at such a time and in such a manner as shall save the population superfluous suffering. The evacuation of objects of artistic, cultural or sacred value shall be facilitated. The German Command will take steps to protect such public and private property as remains in the city.

The details of the evacuation will be regulated by a separate agreement.

II

1. The Home Army Command binds itself to remove the barricades, first and foremost those situated nearest to the German lines, on October 3rd, 1944, beginning at 7:00 hours German time (8:00 hours Polish time).

2. The Home Army Command will deliver to the German lines all German prisoners of war, and also, so far as is possible, all German civilian internees to representatives of the German armed forces on this same day of October 2nd, 1944, by 24:00 hours German time (1:00 a.m. on October 3rd, Polish time) at the latest.

3. If the removal of the barricades is not begun at the time appointed, the German Command reserves the right to denounce this present agreement on October 3rd, 1944, beginning at 12:00 hours German time (13:00 hours Polish time), and the denunciation shall come into effect in two hours from the moment of handing the letter denouncing the agreement to the Polish lines.

4. The Home Army Command binds itself to lead one regiment, or three battalions from different regiments, out of Warsaw to lay down arms on October 4th, 1944. The crossing of the German lines by the head of these forces must follow on October 4th at 9:00 hours German time (10:00 hours Polish time).

5. The remaining forces of the Home Army, with the exception of the units specified in section one, clause 4 of this present agreement, shall leave Warsaw to lay down arms on October 5th, 1944.

6. Forces of the Home Army shall march out of the Polish line with weapons, but without ammunition, by the following routes:

(a) From City Centre South: the 2nd infantry regiment, via Śniadecki, August 6th, Sucha, and Filtrowa Streets.

(b) From City Centre North: (1) the 37th infantry regiment via Napoleon Square, Sikorski Avenue (Reichstrasse) and Grójecka Street (Radomstrasse); (2) the 15th infantry regiment via Grzybowska Street, Chłodna Street (Eisgrubenstrasse) and Wolska Street (Litzmannstädterstrasse).

7. The following forces of the Home Army shall remain in the city:

(a) For duties connected with the preservation of order, three infantry companies armed with pistols, automatic pistols and rifles;

(b) For guarding and handing over three regimental magazines with ammunition and equipment, thirty armed persons, as above;

(c) Medical units for care and transport of the wounded and the evacuation of the hospital to be unarmed.

8. The evacuation of the wounded and sick soldiers of the Home Army, as also of medical material, will be determined by the Medical Head of the German forces in consultation with the Medical Head of the Home Army. Regulations of the same nature for the evacuation of medical personnel's families will follow.

9. Soldiers of the Home Army shall be recognized by a white and red arm-band or pennons; or a Polish eagle, irrespective of whether they wear any kind of uniform or civilian clothing.

10. The agreeing parties confirm that transport, accommodation, guard and care of the prisoners of war shall remain solely within the control of the German armed forces (Deutsche Wehrmacht).

The German party guarantees that these tasks in regard to soldiers of the Home Army will not be entrusted to formations of foreign nationalities.

11. Women who are prisoners of war within the terms of section one, clause 6, will be accommodated in prisoner of war camps corresponding to officers' camps (Oflag) or other ranks' camps (Stalag) respectively.

The ranks of junior commander, commander, senior commander and inspector are regarded as women's officer ranks.

At their own desire women prisoners-of-war may be treated like the remaining population of Warsaw.

12. The German military authorities will immediately inform the Kriegsgefangenenhilfe der Y.M.C.A. in the town of Sagan of the location and number of the Home Army soldiers and accompanying persons accommodated in prisoners-of-war camps.

13. For technical help in carrying out this present agreement S.S. Obergruppenführer and General of Police von dem Bach shall have three Polish officers at his disposition.

III

In the event of the terms of this present agreement being violated, those who are found guilty will be held responsible.
Signed:
General von dem Bach
Col. Iranek Kazimierz
Col. Dobrowolski



The agreement on cessation of hostilities in Warsaw was signed at 9:00 pm tonight marking an end to all military operations in Warsaw. After 63 days of the most brutal, bloody fighting, all hostilities ceased at 8:00 pm. today. Sources indicate that up until 7:30 pm General Bor's radio station had been broadcasting messages to the allies asking for "immediate assistance".  The broadcast was monitored by Polish receiving stations in London and was barely audible. It said, "Hello, Warsaw speaking...We are still fighting, Warsaw....Warsaw is not yet defeated...This town of one million people is being wiped out....We have given more than we could....Give us immediate assistance!! This assistance is due to us!!....We are today the conscience of the world...We....have confidence and are still waiting for your help. We were called "the inspiration of the fighting nations and the inspiration of the world....We, as a nation, have a right to live. We demand that right!!........"


General Tadeusz Komorowski "Bor" surrendered to General von dem Bach, while the Home Army prepares to lay down its weapons. Throughout the ordeal, Polish insurgents fought courageously despite overwhelming odds. Polish men, women and even children joined the underground by the thousands. They supplied vital intelligence information to the allies, and succeeded in conducting thousands of sabotage missions on German supply routes, as well as plots to assassinate many top-level SS and Gestapo officials, including that of Franz Kutschera, SS Police Chief of Warsaw who ambushed and gunned down by Polish fighters in February this year. Despite their horrendous suffering and hardship, and their tremendous courage in battles, surrender to the Germans is a bitter and cruel defeat to Poles who had hoped to regain Polish sovereignty and independence after five years of the most brutal oppression by the Nazi occupiers.

Anthony Eden, British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs announced today that General Sosnkowski was removed from his post as Commander in Chief of the Polish Armed Forces, and confirmed that the Polish Government appointed General Komorowski "Bor" to fill the position.

Sosnowski has been widely criticized by British authorities (and the Soviet government)  for an announcement published in a Polish weekly newspaper called Dziennik Polski (Polish Daily) on September 1st, 1944. The story has been picked up by British newspapers and has spread around the world.

Kazimierz Sosnkowski
Warsaw is not waiting for empty words of praise, for expressions of recognition, not for assurances of sympathy. Warsaw is waiting … Warsaw is waiting … for weapons and ammunition."

To add insult to injury Eden remarked that the appointment of General "Bor" was "unfortunate" because the Polish Communist Committee of National Liberation considers General Tadeusz Komorowski Bor "a criminal".  Meanwhile the British Minister of Information has been invited to speak with the Governors of the BBC. At issue is the implementation of British policy that will give less emphasis in future news bulletins concerning Polish political difficulties.