September 30, 2010

WARSAW EVACUATED - POLISH GOVERNMENT PREVAILS



September 30, 1939

The evacuation began in Warsaw today of Polish forces to German POW camps. Polish President Ignance Moscicki presently interned in Romania has resigned his post.  A new Polish government in exile has been formed on French soil. Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz has taken a constitutional oath at the Polish Embassy and has become the new President of the Republic of Poland. He has appointed Wladyslaw Sikorski to be Prime Minister and Edward Rydz-Smigly the Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces. Despite the German-Soviet occupation of Poland, Britain and France recognize the legitimacy of the newly formed Polish government.

There are presently over 80,000 Polish armed forces stationed in France consisting of army and navy personnel. Many more are arriving every day having escaped Romanian custody. They are not refugees but combatants with the military objective of regrouping their forces to continue fighting for Poland`s freedom. Most arrived by ship, train or car. Many more have made the dangerous passage on foot or skied across the Carpathian mountains.


President Raczkiewicz
CC Rydz-Smigly


Prime Minister Sikorski



German reports have been circulating that Polish planes were destroyed on the airfield.  Sources indicate that although a few trainer planes were hit by enemy fire,  the entire Polish fleet had indeed taken to the air when Germany attacked on September 1st. Subsequent reports of Polish Cavalry attacking German tanks with sabers is equally false and a source of German propaganda.  Eyewitness reports indicate that German Cavalry divisions are  mobilizing.

In reaction to Britain's attack on German U-boats, German Supreme Command has notified British Command that armed British ships will be sunk without warning.  In the South Atlantic today off Pernambuco Brazil the German Graf-Spee bombed and sunk it`s first merchant ship, the British steamship Clement, commanded by Captain F. Harris.

The British Parliament has authorized shipments of poison gas to France in the event that Germany begins using chemical weapons.



Link:
Polish Greatness.com

September 29, 2010

German-Soviet Friendship Treaty



September 29, 1939

Germany and the Soviet Union signed a friendship treaty today establishing the terms of Poland's partition. Germany laid control over the area west of the Bug River consisting of nearly 73,000 square miles and along with it over 50% of all Polish industries including the substantial mining sectors.The USSR took it's share of the spoils covering an area of 78,000 square miles of eastern Poland including all of Lithuania and confiscated all property held by the Polish state as well as privately-run businesses. An economic agreement has also been signed in which Soviet officials promise to provide Germany with the entire oil production of the Dohowicz oil fields. In Western Poland over 22 million Poles are now in the hands of the Nazi Regime.This marks the 4th time in history that the nation of Poland has been partitioned by its neighboring enemies, Germany and Russia. Since the Soviet invasion began almost two weeks ago, hundreds of thousands of Polish men, women and children have been rounded up and deported to Siberia. Those who survive the long treacherous journey will be subjected to hard forced labour.

Germany and Russia signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in Aug 1939 to partition Poland

After the third partition on October 24,1795, Poland ceased to exist as a nation for 123 years. It was not until after World War I, at the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in June 1919, that Poland regained it's nationhood and independence. As part of the terms of that treaty the German provinces of Posen and West Prussia were granted to Poland as a corridor to the Baltic Sea.. Poland also obtained half of Silesia. Danzig was made a Free City under the control of the League of Nations.
 
Treaty of Versailles was signed in Paris, 1919 Thirty two countries were represented.

The RAF lost 5 Hampden bombers during a daylight raid at Heligoland, a small archipelago in the North Sea. The raid occurred in two waves. In the first wave, the Hampden bombers attempted an attack on 2 German destroyers but failed. In the second wave all 5 planes were destroyed.

In the British House of Commons today, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain commented whether Britain and France's entry into the war could stop Nazi aggression. Two days ago Chamberlain in an address to the House of Commons said "How horrible, fantastic, incredible it is that we should be digging trenches and trying on gas-masks because of a quarrel in a far away country between people of who we know nothing. It seems still more impossible that a quarrel which has already been settled in principle should be the subject of war."  Meanwhile, a national census was conducted in Britain to assess rationing and mobilization efforts.


British PM Chamberlain debating in Parliament


Fritz Kuhn, leader of the pro-Nazi German-American Bund organization was arrested in New York City today and charged as an enemy agent of the United States. Kuhn served Germany during World War I as Infantry Lieutenant and was decorated with an Iron Cross. He moved to the United States in 1928 and in 1934 became a naturalized citizen. On March 19, 1936 Hitler personally selected Kuhn to be the leader of the newly formed German-American Bund.



Link:
Polish Greatness.com

September 28, 2010

POLES IN MODLIN SURRENDER


The voice is that of Jozefa Malgorzewskiego announcing the capitulation of Warsaw.

September 28, 1939

After an 18-day siege one of the last pockets of Polish resistance surrendered to the Germans today.  The 10 divisions of the Modlin Army had been encircled by German forces in the area of Kutno and Modlin. Under the command of Brig. General Emil Krukowicz Przedrzymirski, the army consisted of 2 infantry divisions and 2 cavalry brigades, as well as 28 infantry battalions, 37 cavalry squadrons, 180 artillery pieces, 12 anti-air artillery pieces, 1 armoured train and 28 planes.

Polish Infantry

Named after the fort located in the region, the Modlin Army was created in March 1939 with the objective of defending the capital city of Warsaw and the city of Plock, from the north.  Their primary line of defence was close to the border with East Prussia and Mlawa, setting Narew and Vistula Rivers as their secondary line.

During the Battle of Mlawa, the German 3rd Army pushed the Modlin Army back towards the Narew and Bug Rivers. Despite receiving reinforcements of Operational Group Wyszkow under General Wincenty Kowalski, it was insufficient to prevent from falling back. On September 10th, the Polish army abandoned it's position near Warsaw. Some of its' troops joined the Warszawa Army and took part in the final defense of Warsaw. Other units were pushed to the southeast near the Romanian bridgehead and took part in the Battle of Tomaszow Lubelski from September 21 to 26.

SS lead Polish Prisoners blindfolded to execution

Talks continued today between German Foreign Minister Ribbentrop and Marshall Stalin. Meanwhile, a Soviet-Estonian Pact has just  been signed giving the USSR use of bases in Estonia, a move which ensures Soviet ambitions in the Baltic area.

German radio has been broadcasting numerous reports of having destroyed British warships. In London today the British Admiralty has strongly denied it,  assuring  that "no British ship has been damaged nor any casualties incurred from German aircraft."

In Washington, DC today, the Foreign Relations Committee submitted the Neutrality Bill to the US Senate.



Link:
Polish Greatness.com

September 27, 2010

WARSAW HAS CAPITULATED!



Capitulation of Warsaw (00:03:03m)


September 27, 1939

The German High Command organized another all-out assault on Warsaw and was repelled again by the Poles. Casualties have risen sharply on both sides. Over the past several weeks the Polish military has been locked in combat showing no signs of weakening. Polish General Czuma has managed to gather additional forces and war materiel that could prolong the battle for several weeks longer.  While the Polish units may hold out indefinitely, the civilian population of Warsaw is in a state of desperation with water, food and medical supplies having run out.  German bombers have demolished the city dropping incendiary and explosive bombs. The waterworks have been destroyed leaving Warsaw without potable water. There is not sufficient water to even extinguish fires that are burning throughout the city caused by the constant bombardment.  Hitler remarked to a journalist, "That is how I can deal with any European city."

Yesterday, General Tadeusz Kutrzeba, Deputy Commander of Warsaw, initiated capitulation talks with the German Commander.  Today at 12:00 hours a cease fire agreement was signed by Germany and Poland.  Several Polish units dispersed throughout Warsaw, refused to put down their weapons and obey the ceasefire.  Their commanding officers were visited by General Czuma and Rommel bearing news of surrender.

All fighting has stopped. Warsaw has capitulated. German forces have taken prisoner 150,000 Polish soldiers. German General Von Blaskowitz who received the Polish surrender permitted the officers to keep their sabers. Polish troops have been taken into captivity for as long as it takes "to dispose of the necessary formalities."  German officials will provide immediate relief to the civilian population and the wounded under the terms of the capitulation.





Left - German General Blaskowitz  Right - w/o hat is General Tadeusz Kutrzeba


Polish POWs
Warsaw Surrender of Armaments


In the past 2 days of the worst bombardment inflicted upon Warsaw over 2,000 Polish soldiers and 10,000 civilians were killed.. Since the beginning of the Siege of Warsaw a total of 40,000 people have been killed or injured.

Throughout the siege Britain and France made no attempt to come to Poland's aid.






London:  Sir John Simon the Chancellor of the Exchequer presented his first War Budget. Income tax has been raised from 5/6d (25-1/2p) to 7/6d (37-1/2p) in the pound.

Berlin:  Hitler has informed his service chiefs that he plans to attack in the west as soon as possible. He has set the date as November 12th.  His decision was made unilaterally but has been met with opposition by army representatives.  Hitler has also established the Reichssicherheitshauptampt (Reich Chief Security Office) under Reinhard Heydrich, who also heads the Gestapo, Kripo (Criminal Police) and Security Service.


Link:
Polish Greatness.com

September 26, 2010

WARSAW WITHSTANDS GERMAN ONSLAUGHT


Rough Translation:   Immortal City of Warsaw, where the West meets the East in Central Europe the city was founded,
so you know the fundamentals.

September 26, 1939

A general assault began early this morning on all fronts surrounding the besieged city of Warsaw. The western part of the city is under attack by 5 German divisions (10th, 18th 19th, 31st, and 46th) while 4 divisions (11th, 32nd, 61st and 217th) are attacking the eastern part of the city.  German forces are supported by 70 batteries of field artillery, 80 batteries of heavy artillery, and 2 entire air fleets (1st and 4th).  Bombing of the city is continuous. The city center is in flames. The German 8th Army under Commander-in-Chief von Brauchitsch has joined the other troops in a joint massive assault. The attack however was repelled by the Poles forcing the Germans to retreated to their original positions.  Reports indicate that the Poles have re-captured Mokotow Airport and have rebuilt 6 of their airplanes which have all taken to the air.

German infantry with 150mm Howitzer attacking Warsaw
German tanks surround Warsaw


Stuka Bombers Swarm Warsaw
 

On the Western Front, the French continue launching artillery fire on the forward defences of the German Siegfried Line. Meanwhile in France the Communist Party has been dissolved by a Presidential decree. It now becomes illegal to propagandize themes of the Third International. French communists are leading an anti-war movement. Some have been interned by the French government.

In the British House of Commons, the First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill announced that Britain is winning the U-boat war claiming that British fleets have destroyed a 10th of German submarines in the first 2 weeks of the war and that German losses are probably a quarter or a third by now.

The HMS Ark Royal narrowly escaped an attack today by German JU 88 Bombers. Yesterday the Royal helped rescue the submarine HMS Spearfish which had suffered damage by German warships off Horn Reefs, in the Kattegat (in the southwestern peninsula of Denmark). While returning to port today with Spearfish and HMS Nelson Rodney their location was discovered by 3 Luftwaffe Dornier airplanes.  The Ark Royal launched 3 Blackburn Skuas to disperse them shooting down one Dornier in what was the first British aerial kill of the war.  Realizing that the surviving Dorniers would report their location, the commander of the Royal ordered the aircraft be secured and the anti-aircraft artillery readied.  Four JU-88 bombers soon appeared but were driven away by the ships anti-aircraft fire. The fourth bomber launched a 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) bomb at the carrier.The Ark Royal turned hard to starboard heeling over and avoided the bomb which landed in the ocean 30 meters (98 ft) off her starboard bow and sent a spout of water over the ship.

The Germans claimed that the Ark Royal was hit and sank but the pilots could not confirm it. Not long afterward a German reconnaissance flight was made but only two ships were spotted - not the Ark Royal. To prove German propaganda wrong before it had a negative impact on the Allies, Winston Churchill personally assured President Roosevelt that the carrier was undamaged and invited the US naval attache to view the Ark in dock.

British Carrier HMS Ark Royal



Link:

September 25, 2010

Germany Issues Second Peace Ultimatum



Note: The Luftwaffe did not destroy half of Polands airfleet on the ground. They only hit a few training planes.

September 25, 1939

After three weeks of heavy German attacks the Polish forces continue to put up a tough resistance. German Command has issued a second ultimatum which has also been ignored by the Poles. In response Hitler has ordered that bombing raids be escalated. Over 400 bombers and Stuka dive bombers are flying continuous sorties over the city. Warsaw in engulfed in flames.  In an effort to complete the conquest German bombers are heavily targeting the civilian population in a terror campaign by swooping low over their targets before releasing its payload. Hitler has issued a fourth war directive ordering that attacks also be escalated against Allied ships in the North Atlantic. Polish military and civilian casualties continue to rise.

Germans bombed the Royal Castle of Warsaw


German tanks roll through Wola suburb of Warsaw 1939








Link:
Polish Greatness.com

September 24, 2010

GERMAN TROOPS ISOLATE MODLIN



1939 Polish Defensive War - The Beginning of World War II (00:08:04m)


September 24, 1939

German forces have isolated Modlin Fortress north of Warsaw a vital stronghold to the Polish defence. Reports have been received that Warsaw has suffered heavy casualties among insurgents remaining in the city and the wounded in hospitals.

Polish Artillery near Modlin Fortress
Wounded Polish Soldier and Nurse

Meanwhile Soviet units have occupied eastern Galicia. The towns of Boryslaw, and Drohobych located on Poland's oilfields were much coveted by the German forces who had to relinquish their control to the Soviets according to the Molotov-Ribbentrop agreement.

Boryslaw, Poland
Drohobych, Poland


On the Western Front, French artillery launches attacks on the German border while French bombers strike the German Zeppelin base at Friedrichshafen.

German U-boats attacked and sank a Swedish steamer carrying timber, and a British steamer the Kafristan. The SS American Farmer arrived in New York harbour with 29 survivors of the crew of the Kafristan, Passengers reported that a British plane swooped down on the German submarine spraying its deck with machine gun fire and dropping bombs one of which fell on the conning tower.


Link:
Polish Greatness.com

September 23, 2010

WARSAW IS SURROUNDED! DESPERATE LACK OF FOOD AND WATER



September 23, 1939

The siege of Warsaw continues. Polish forces have issued a communique demanding re-enforcements and shipments of ammunition and medical supplies. Warsaw is running out of food and potable water supplies are all but depleted. Though Warsaw is completely surrounded by the Germans, Polish insurgents are still showing signs of strong resistance having repelled numerous attacks. Meanwhile in Berlin the German government is claiming that Poles have ceased fighting and state that "In a connected series of destructive battles, of which the greatest and most decisive was in the bend of the Vistula, the Polish Army of a million men has been defeated, captured or routed. No single Polish active or reserve division escaped this fate. Only fractions of individual groups were able to avoid immediate destruction by fleeing into the swamps of eastern Poland. They succumbed there to Soviet troops. Of the entire Polish army only an insignificant remainder still is fighting at hopeless positions in Warsaw, Modlin and on the Hela Peninsula."  The Poles fight on courageously against all odds.





 



In Germany wireless sets have been confiscated from all Jews.

Two Finnish steamers in the North Atlantic have been attacked and sunk by German submarine forces. Reports are coming in from the Western Front that Germans are mounting numerous counter-attacks all without success.

Mussolini has confirmed the Italian intention to remain neutral unless attacked. He stated that Italy is following a policy to "strengthen our army in preparation for any eventualities and support every possible peace effort while working in silence."  He also suggested that the "liquidation" of Poland would facilitate a European peace settlement.

In Tokyo, Admiral Nomura becomes Foreign Minister in General Abe's recently appointed government. Reports indicate that Tokyo has made initial conciliatory moves towards the United States but without response.

At Panama, American states have agreed to a 300-mile (480km) neutral zone off the coast of the Americas.



Link:
Polish Greatness.com

September 22, 2010

Soviet-German Victory Parade At Brest-Litovsk



September 22, 1939

A joint Russian-German parade took place today in Brest-Litovsk celebrating their victory over Poland. Amid huge crowds military divisions of the Red Army and Werhmacht rolled past the Victory Arches decorated with stars and swastikas. Soviet and German generals were seen paying homage to each other. The parade was intended to display the power of the new Soviet-Nazi alliance. After the parade without undue ceremony, the Germans withdrew to the western bank of the Bug River and the Soviets took control of the city as well as the rest of eastern Poland. General Konstanty Pilsowski, commander of the Polish forces who defended the city from German attack, was arrested by the Soviet NKVD and sent to prison camp at Starobielsk.

Polish General Konstanty Pilsowski

Meanwhile Soviet troops have captured Lwow and Bialystock. Lwow was taken by the Soviets after an act of surrender was signed by Polish General Wladyslaw Langner. The Soviets agreed to all Polish conditions permitting privates and NCOs to leave the city, registering themselves with Soviet authorities before they go home. Polish officers were also told that they were allowed to keep their belongings and go to whatever country accepted them. But In a brutal twist of fate, the Soviets suddenly reneged on their promises. The infamous NKVD began arresting Polish officers and escorted them to Tarnopol from where they were deported to Starobielsk among other gulags in Russia to await their fate.

Soviet Tanks Enter Lwow September 22, 1939

Red Army In Lwow

Polish Prisoners of the Red Army 1939


NKVD Bosses planned  the 1937 Massive Terror Campaign in which 750,000 Poles were executed for being "enemies of the State"
Seated -Center:  Agranov Yakov Deputy head of NKVD 1934-38.Jewish. Executed in 1938 with his wife.
Seated on Left: Nocolay Ezhov 1936-38. Russian. Executed 1940 he was a homosexual as Ernst Rohm

Germans continue to bomb Praga, a suburb of Warsaw. In preparation for storming the city, German units have been shelling Warsaw day and night with heavy artillery and aerial bombardment. Among the weapons used were heavy guns and mortars. Two entire air fleets took part in air raids targeting military and civilians. German units positioned on the eastern bank of the Vistula have been bombing Praga continuously for the past two days. Chancellor Hitler visited the area to observe the shelling of the city. The last lines of communication between Warsaw and Modlin were cut by German forces reaching the Vistula. Polish insurgents continue to launch fierce attacks against German troops, causing heavy casualties.

German Artillery Motorbiike
German POWs arrested by the Polish Army

Reports just received that a high level German officer has been assassinated. Colonel General von Friitsch, a former German Army Commander-in-Chief and an outspoken opponent of the Nazi government was gunned down outside Warsaw, by a Polish sniper.

Sussex: A second meeting of the Allied Supreme War Council convened today.  Although it was intended to be kept secret news of it leaked out drawing huge crowds outside the gates. British Prime Minister Chamberlain, Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax, and Lord Chatfield, the Minister for the Co-ordination of Defense, met with French Premier Daladier, General Gamelin,the Commander-in-Chief of the Western Front, Admiral Darlan, Chief of the French Naval Staff, and M Dautry. A communique was later released outlining the key issues discussed, including munitions supplies.





Link:

September 21, 2010

600,000 JEWS DEPORTED TO CENTRAL POLAND



September 21, 1939

Nazi authorities have conducted widespread arrests rounding up Jews from Danzig and cities throughout western Poland for deportation to central Poland. In a mandate named the Heydrich Plan, the German Chiefs of the Einstazgruppen of the Security Police have been given full authority to deal with the Jews in Occupied territories. While the first step of the Plan is currently underway, there are only inferences concerning the objectives of the Nazi regime, mentioning only that "the final aim will require extended periods of time."

Deportation of Jews




In Lwow, the situation for Polish fighters is hopeless. General Sikorski has decided to surrender to the Soviets. Though the Polish army reserves and war materiel are in good supply, the General stated that further defence of the city was pointless resulting in greater civilian casualties. Surrender talks with the Soviets will begin tomorrow.

German forces continue to bomb key areas of Warsaw today, closing in on pockets of resistance still held by Polish insurgents.  The Armia Krajowa (Home Army) is firmly entrenched and show no signs of weakening, although urgent appeals are being made for ammunition and weapons.

Polish Infantry Soldiers in Action

Some Polish soldiers of Armia Krajowa

Polish Soldiers Defend Warsaw

In Bucharest, the Romanian Prime Minister Armand Calinescu has been assassinated by members of the Iron Guard, a fascist organization.  The assassins blocked the path of his car with a wooden cart and shot the Prime Minister and his bodyguards. After a forced entry into the radio station they broadcast the announcement on air "The death sentence on Calinescu has been executed". In their attempt to escape they were shot where the Prime Minister had been gunned down moments earlier. Romanian Officials declared that the dead bodies of the gunmen are still lying in the street and will not be removed until tomorrow. In a communique sent by the Iron Guard, the assassination was in retaliation for the liberal policy of the Romanian government towards the Polish government and for accepting Polish military and civilian refugees.

Meanwhile the British government has published its Blue Book of pre-war Diplomatic Documents.

In Washington President Roosevelt addressed a special joint session of Congress and urged that the provisions of the Neutrality Act preventing sales to belligerent countries be repealed immediately. He stated that "Our acts must be guided by one single hard-headed thought...keeping America out of this war." He argued that allowing arms to be sold on a "cash-and-carry basis"  would be "better calculated than any other means to keep us out of the war."

Newspaper reports in the US allege that senior officials of the Nazis including Goebbels and Hess have foreign investments worth over $12 million US.

Radio Luxembourg went off the air today after a final broadcast.



Link:
Polish Greatness.com

September 20, 2010

SOVIETS: LIBERATORS OR CONQUERORS?


" September Campaign" The opening scenes are of Polish Military Forces

September 20, 1939

In a stunning turn of events, Polish armies in the city of Lwow find themselves trapped. German units that were positioned to the north and south of the city have suddenly withdrawn all their forces and in their place are now Soviet infantry. Reports indicate that many Poles have either been forcibly conscripted into the Red Army or have done so willingly. No confirmation has yet been received from the Polish Commanders.

The Polish Armies of Poznan and Pomorze, which were defeated by German troops yesterday at Bzura, have reached the outskirts of Warsaw to provide reinforcements. Over 120,000 Polish troops have converged and broken through the German encirclement at Warsaw and Modlin. German units numbering over 175,000 soldiers were prepared for the assault. Casualties were high on both sides.

In response to Hitler's so-called peace offerings, France and Britain proclaimed that they "will not permit a Hitler victory to condemn the world to slavery and to ruin all moral values and destroy liberty."  Despite their concerted bravado, Britain and France have still not deterred Germany's drive for territorial expansion across Europe. With the exception of occasional military skirmishes along the Maginot Line, the Allied Front remains weak.  Both Britain and France have promised to come to Poland's aid but have failed to take any action. The Polish government is concerned that Poland will follow the same fate as Czechoslovakia.  When Hitler demanded control of the Sudetenland in 1938, Britain unilaterally ceded part of Czechosolvakia in exchange for guarantees of peace. Will Poland be next?       
 
Partition of Czechosloakia
Chamberlain and Hitler at Munich Conference 1938



Meanwhile in the British House of Commons, the Conservative Government under Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain has come under heavy criticism from the Labour Party Opposition for his policy of appeasement and for failing to provide assistance for Poland's defence after the September 1st invasion by Germany.

A flight of German ME-109 fighters attacked three Fairey Battle reconnaissance bombers today over the Siegfried Line near Aachen.  Britain was able to shoot down one Me fighter before losing two of her Fairey Battles. In the meantime 110 British and French armored divisions sit idle while Hitler carves up Europe.


Link:
Polish Greatness.com

September 19, 2010

POLISH LOSSES RISING



Adolf Hitler - Gdańsk [1939] WFDiF (00:00:09 sec)


September 19, 1939

Early this morning the first Soviet armoured tanks arrived in the eastern outskirts of the city of Lwow and the suburb of Lyczakow.  After a brief battle the Soviets were pushed back by Polish gunfire. Since then Soviet forces have joined units of the German army and encircled the city during the night.  Polish defence in the area consists of field fortifications and barricades constructed by local residents under the supervision of military engineers. General Sikorski has ordered a defense of the outer city rim as well as inner defences. Early this morning, Soviet envoys arrived and started negotiations with Polish officers.  Colonel Ivanov, commander of the Soviet tank brigade assured the Polish envoy, Colonel Bronislaw Rakowski that the Red Army entered Poland to help it fight the Germans and that his top priority was for Soviet units to enter Lwow.  Following this ruse, the German commander then sent his envoy and demanded that the city be surrendered to Germany.  When the General Sikorski refused he was informed that a general assault would begin on September 21st and the city taken by force.

Soviet tanks enter Lwow

The Soviets captured the town of Wilno today.  Yesterday Polish troops received reports that Soviet forces were approaching rapidly from Oszmiana. Most were armoured scouts who clashed intermittently with Polish units.  Polish Col. Okulicz-Kozaryn ordered his men to fall back towards the Lithuanian border and sent out the more experienced unit, the Korpus Ochrony Pogranicza.  Although the first Soviet attack was repulsed by Polish infantry, Soviets easily advanced into the city and quickly surrounded it. They secured the airport, city, and Rasos Cemetery.  This morning Polish units were defending the bridges in an attempt to delay the Soviet advance but their defence quickly collapsed. Soviet armored units are in control of the city and have been reinforced with infantry and cavalry.  Reports indicate that Polish infantry units have dispersed, or have surrendered, their whereabouts unknown.

Soviet Cavalry in Wilno

Soviet troops have linked up with German Infantry at Brest-Litovsk at which point the Germans promptly handed it's control over to the Soviets in accordance with the provisions of a secret agreement of August 23, 1939. Initially it was called the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact but the title was changed to Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union.

Soviet and German Officers at Brest Litovsk

The Battle of Bzura that has raged since September 9 ended today with the surrender of 100,000 officers and men of the Polish Pomorze and Poznan Armies. Meanwhile, over 30,000 Polish troops reach Warsaw after fighting their way out of Kutno.  German planes continue to bomb Warsaw striking communication, power, and transportation lines.  In Eastern Poland, Lvov is now surrounded by German armies.

Hitler made a triumphant entry today in Danzig to the wild cheers of people lining the streets. Until Germany's annexation Danzig was a Free City under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 and was under the protection of the League of Nations, with reserved special rights to Poland.  In his speech Hitler mocked France and Britain by making an offer of conciliation suggesting that the war could end on the basis of German territorial gains already won. He vowed that Danzig would belong to Germany forever, and would fight to the bitter end if it were necessary.



Link:
Polish Greatness.com

September 18, 2010

POLES ESCAPE TO FRANCE WITH SECRET OF ENIGMA




September 18, 1939

Polish mathematician and cryptologist Marian Rejewski and his colleagues Jerzy Rozycki and Henryk Zygalski made a daring escape from Romania to France yesterday.  Rejewski is reknowned for cracking the code of Germany's secret Enigma machine. Several weeks before the Germans invaded Poland, Rejewski and his colleagues had presented the results of the Enigma de-coding to French and British Intelligence Bureaus. Shortly after the Nazis invaded Poland they fled to Romania, carrying with them the secrets of the Enigma.

Marian Rejewski




 Henryk Zygalski
Jerzy Rozycki
Rejewski was studying mathematics at Poznan University and also attended a secret cryptology course conducted by the Cypher Bureau of the Polish General Staff. It was not until 1932 that Rejewski set to work on decoding the Enigma. After only a few weeks he worked out the secret internal wiring system and together with his colleagues discovered the techniques for the decryption of Enigma messages.
More about the Enigma





The Battle at Bzura has taken a deadly turn for the Poles. German troops started their drive towards the south along both banks of the Bzura River, supported by more than 300 aircraft and heavy artillery. German infantries have dug into positions on high ground along the Vistula's Right Bank giving them complete control of the region. Armed with howitzers, the Germans have been shelling Polish positions all day. Polish casualties are extremely high.


Polish President Moscicki, and the Commander-in-Chief Rydz-Smigly have escaped through Polish borders and  have arrived in Romania. They were immediately interned by the Romanian government, and have dispatched a message for Polish troops urging them to keep fighting.

Polish Armoured Cars Advancing

Polish Army

Polish 75mm Howitzers

Polish R-35 tank

Polish Squadrons

Soviet forces continue to advance and have covered a distance of 100 km into Poland's heartland with little resistance. With most of Poland's Infantry Divisions concentrated in the West, and the evacuation of other Polish units, the future of Poland is bleak.  Meanwhile the German 3rd and 10th armies begin their attack on Warsaw.

The German Luftwaffe dropped thousands of leaflets on the city of Lwow urging the Poles to surrender. When this was ignored, the Germans began a general  assault, which was again repelled by the Polish fighters.

Another attack and rescue in the North Atlantic today.  The SS Kensington Court was shelled by a German U-32 submarine near the English coast. Before she sank, an SOS was sent out and 34 men jumped ship. Within minutes they were rescued by two British sea-planes and have arrived safely ashore. The Kensington Court was on route from Argentina to Birkenhead carrying 8,000 tons of cereal.

In a joint announcement that has stunned the world, the governments of Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Iceland have declared that they intend to continue trading with all belligerent nations to protect their economic interests.



Related Links:
The Enigma Machine Part 1 Polish Code Breakers
Polish Greatness.com  The Enigma